THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RADIO AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

(A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE)

By

OKPORO DAVID .O.

Presented To

Department of Mass Communication

ABSTRACT

Through survey research method. This study focused on the effectiveness of the radio as an agent of social mobilization in rural communities, using a case study of Anambra state. The primary objective of this work boiled down from examining the various ways by which the effectiveness of the radio can serve as an agent for social mobilization in rural communities. Some problems were highlighted, like using the radio to restore hope in hopeless situation the radio can be used in carrying out a new social order for the rural communities, taken their suggestion about any issues. This work equally solve some problem on how to use radio effectively to achieve the desired impact and improve the work of the radio as an agent of social mobilization.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page…………………………………………………………… - i

Dedication ………………………………………………………… - ……ii

Acknowledgement …………………………………………… - ………iii

Abstract……………………………………………………………………iv

Table of content……………………………………………………………v

CHAPTER ONE

11 Introduction ……………………………………………………… - 1

12 Background Information of Rural Communities Agent … - …4

13 Statement of problem…………………………………………… - 5

14 Purpose of study…………………………………………… - - 6

15 Significance of study………………………………………… - 7

16 Research question…………………………………………… - 7

17 Limitation of study…………………………………………… - 8

18 Scope of study ………………………………………………… - 9

19 Definition of terms…………………………………………… - 9

CHAPTER TWO

21 Literature Review…………………………………………… - 12

CHAPTER THREE

31 Methodology of Data collection …………………………… - 23

32 Target population…………………………… - - - - - - 23

33 Source of population study…………………………… - - - 24

34 Sample size…………………… - …………………………………25

35 Sample Technique…………………… - …………………………25

36 Source at data …………………… - ………………………… - … 26

37 Instrument for data collection …………………… - ……… - …26

38 Measure of validity and reliability………………………………26

CHAPTER FOUR

41 Data Analysis and discussion …………………… - …………28

CHAPTER FIVE

51 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation …………………36

52 Conclusion…………………… - …………………………… - …36

53 Recommendation ………………………………………… - …37

54 Suggestion for further study……………………………………37

Reference …………………… - …………………………… - 39-40

Appendix…………………… - ………………………………… - 41

Questionnaire …………………… - …………… - ………… - 42



CHAPTER ONE

11 Introduction

The exposition of principles for this study boils down to the fact on any mobilization effort going in the country or within a geographical area which radio becomes an important instrument for social mobilization

The main content of radio is not designed to challenge or modify the social and political structure of nation either in a non-party state or in a democratic society This effort of radio stemmed in emphasizing the ability of view presented in the media Which emphasize the fundamental impact of control

The enlightenment of radio programme introduced by the military regime of late general Sani Abacha was to carry out a new social order and towards the enthronement of fourth republic in a situation where most Nigerians have lost faith in military toward a sincere transition programme as a result of the latest statement of 3rd republic The radio become a necessary instrument to let people know all things that is happening

Bringing to the notice in radio programme the rural communities agency (RCA) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in 1995 on the ashes of the radio mobilization for social justice, economic recovery and self reliance (MAMSTER) agency radio serves as instruments for control with the study in the so-called new nation of Africa

According to Donald A Hobbs and Stuartly Blank (1986) of increasing significance in modern time is the influence of radio in the form of available literature and sit television programme

The mass media can be used both to promote social stability and to effect special change Its effectiveness his on its ability to reach masses of people immediately at once and in dealing with people regardless of the race or geographical location It is very necessary in teaching the people extensively and making the people to feel the impact of what is going on in their country or to feel the programme you are intending to introduce This is where the radio come in, because no society exist in vacuum and as such making people to feel the impact of what you are doing which is necessary to achieve he desired effect

Consequently the Nigeria radio channel area not vibrant to its zineth, the journalist works tooth and nail to make the Nigeria media performance an excellence in performing the duty of social mobilization the attitude toward Nigerian should be known by effectiveness of radio as an agent of social mobilization

Daniel Learner (1968: Pg 50) posited in standard of living urbanization, literacy and exposure to the radio during the process of transition from traditional to modern society

According to WI Thamas (1995:pg 17) He said the native language of radio supplied an important element of group integration and a linkage to wider community

12 Background Information of Rural Communities Agent

The communities Agency (RCA) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in (1996) on the reason of Mass Mobilization for social justice Economic recovery Self reliance (MAMSER) in carrying out a new social order for the country The agency was mandated by the government to ensure that all this polices and programme are carried to the people as quickly, fast and effectively as much as the following can be seen to be functions of (RCA)

a) To serve as a bridge between the government and the people

b) To ensure that the policies and programmes of the government are explained and communicated to the masses of the country

c) To intermediate the information gap between the government and the masses in the grassroots

d) To inform, educate and entertain the masses

e) To take the findings of the people living in the rural are and communicate them back to the government

f) To foster discipline and sense of belonging in the audience

g) To help in creating awareness of the government policies and programme

h) To promote culture and social order

i) To help in the enlightment of the people based on the above function It is difficulty for the rural communities agency to achieve the desired impact with the use of the radio

13 Statement of Problem

This research work is directed at the following problems

a) The problem of creating awareness to the grass root in a rural

area

b) The problem of how to mobilize people toward a certain goal concerning the issue of social mobilization

c) The problem of how rural community Agency (RCA) can make their aspiration in knowing people of rural area their need

The above mentioned problems are the issues to be looked into in the cause of this subject work

The issue of creating awareness particularly to the grass roots who are largely hetrogenous, is not an easy task and should be a cause for concern for the agency in carrying out the onerous duty Also the problem of effectively mobilizing the people is at the same time not an easy one, because different people has a different ways of responding to an issues Equally radio on its part, will be trying to devise a means of making his aspirations known to the people without being accused of basic or necessarily an organ of propaganda

14 Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to find out how the activities of the radio affect the programme of the rural communities agency (RCA) the work which is focused in finding out how radio can be used effectively in mobilization effort in the country Particularly a reference to Anambra State Also to find out how (RCA) can be more productive in achieving the desired result using the radio as an instrument of mobilization Moreover, emphasis on discovering specific reaction and change generated by media content which tends to produce a basic distortion or limitation in their findings

15 Significance of Study

The need and important for this study is to stress the fact that the press is an indomitable concept of the rural communities agency (RCA) which is meant in achieving the desired impact intended, it is also intended to highlight how the radio can be used in mobilization effort to build a harmonious relationship between the masses and the government Also the study intend to stress the importance of radio as an instrument of hope restoration in a hopeless situation life the perilous time of military regime Also the radio can be veritable vehicle to carry information from the government to the people Which brought about possibility of a good organized information flow throughout the country

16 Research Questions

a) To what extend does the role of radio affect any social mobilization effort?

b) Does any role played by radio in crisis situation affect the reaction of the people in the situation?

c) To what extend can the radio be used in mobilization effort in carrying out a new social order ?

17 Limitation of Study

In the cause of carrying out this study, this following problems arose, they are:

1) The non co-operation of all respondent: In this case not all the respondent co-operated to the study of cause; out of 350 questionnaire, it was only 300 that was responded and this is one of the factor in contribution to the rise of problem in carrying out this study

2) Financial constraint: Due to excruciating financial handicap and economic problem The researchers went through some financial draw back in the process of gathering data for conclusive project work, money for travel to area where the data for this project work could be obtained is lacked, money for buying books for reference purpose, money for typing and binding the whole project work, infact money is needed in all aspect to carry out this work into completeness

3) Time: Limited time is also another factor that militate against this study this time issue is also the problem which the researcher of this work faced in act of putting together this work The time allotted for us the students for completion and submission of this project work was so short that the researcher tears that it may affect the reliability and validity of this research work if totality of research was to be considered

18 Scope of Study

This research work only focused and covered the activities of the rural communities Agency (RCA) of grass root levels in Anambra state of Nigeria pertaining its social mobilization effort and not the whole state in Nigeria or the entire country

19 Definition of Terms

The key words used in this research documentation are:

a) RADIO: This refers or pertaining to electromagnetic wave with frequencies between those of infrared radiation and x-rays, hence, pertaining to broadcast radio

b) Effectiveness: This refers to the subject scores of the ability or power of the total understanding and appreciation of subject in its activeness in the desired effect

c) Electronic medium: It encompasses all form communication that are broadcast through the news radio and television

d) Print medium: This term comprises of all form of communication which is printed in visible form through the newspaper and magazine

e) Agent: The term agent have to do with human beings living as a group in a situation requiring that they should have dealing with one another Like in social form

f) Mobilization: To be mobilized or to become organized and make ready for use or ready for required action (RCA) this is an organ created by Late General Sani Abacha administration charged with the mandate or role of people acting as a vehicle of explaining government policies and programme to the people

g) Social mobilization: This involves the act of creating social awareness in people (ie) letting people know the social operandi of a place Which can be, cultural, political, economical, social etc It can be for awaken old value or new value

h) Anambra: This is one of the South eastern state in Nigeria The occupant of Anambra state is dominantly Igbo people, speaking Igbo language Anambra state is one of the 36 state in Nigeria that make up the Federal Republic of Nigeria

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