NIGERIAN HOME MOVIES AND INFLUENCES ON IGBO CULTURE

By

KELVIN B.

Presented To

Department of Mass Communication

ABSTRACT
This research study was primarily motivated by the research curiosity to examine the extent to which Nigerian home movies has negatively influenced the Igbo culture given the rate in which these movies has proliferated Nigerians markets.
The data gathered and the finds in this study are to serve as reference material for future researchers in the field of home movie production and mass communication.
Responses wee gathered through research questionnaire from Igbo adults who are conversant with Igbo culture. Also the research was conducted in Enugu metropolis, where it is believed that you would be high rate of home movie viewer ship.
Four research questions as well as hypothesis were answered and tested. The entire hypothesis except one received statistical support.
Also the limitation and significance of this study were highlighted and recommendation based on the findings was made. 

LISTS OF TABLES
Table 4.1.1 questionnaire administration and collection
Table 4.2.1 gender distribution of respondents
Table 2 age distribution of respondents.
Table 3 ethnic group distribution of respondents
Table 4 distribution of respondents by marital status
Table 5 distribution of respondents by profession
Table 6 home movie viewer ship
Table7 embodiment of negative characteristics
Table8 ability to assess movies
Table9 home movies as strong agents of attitude formation
Table 10 like hood of attitude formed and the behaviour to be negative.
Table 11 exposure to violent movies leading to violent tendencies
Table 12 Igbo people imbibing the negative characteristics
Table 13 negative influences on Igbo culture by home movies
Table 4.4:1 calculation of chi square for hypothesis one
Table 4.4:2 calculation of chi square for hypothesis two
Table 4.4:3 calculation of chi square for hypothesis three
Table 4.4:4 calculation of chi square for hypothesis four.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.8 ASSUMPTION
1.9 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
REFERENCES

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE
2.2 HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF HOME MOVIES
2.3 MOVIES AND NEGATIVE INFLUENCES ON CULTURE
2.4 MOVIES AS AGENT OF ATTITUDE FORMATION AND BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE
2.5 SANTIZING THE MOVIES INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
2.6 THE ORIENTATION FRAMEWORK
2.7 SUMMARY

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
3.1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
3.2 RESEARCH METHOD
3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE
3.5 MEASURING INSTRUMENT
3.6 METHOD OF QUESTIONAIRE ADMINISTRATION
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS
3.8 EXPECTED RESULTS

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 QUESTIONAIRE DISTRIBUTION AND COLLECTIONS
4.2 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES
4.3 ANSWER TO RESEARCH QUESTION
4.4 EMPIRICAL TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
REFERENCE

CHAPTER FIVE 
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX: QUESTIONAIRE

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This study the Nigerian home movies and influences on Igbo culture aims at identifying the influences of Nigerian home movies especially those that have their theme, plot, and setting in rich culture of Igbo Even those that have Yoruba or Hausa theme, plot and setting but like the imported films influences negatively the culture and behaviour of Igbo people
There is common belief in Nigeria especially amongst the Ibos that home movies project negatively the culture of Nigeria That is why frank Aig imoukeluede in opubor (1995:47) confirms that: many Nigerians have complained of the poisonous content of firms shown on the screens in Nigeria A great number of people have criticized our television featuring materials, which contradictor erode the quality of life and undermines our values and mores What is needed are films for self protection, for presenting the facts of life in Nigeria The study will be able to confirm or approve this widely held view
The historical of home movies has it that actual recording and presentation of actualities started with the lumpier brothers experience on December 25 1895; when they achieved this by recording “break time” in their factory Dosumu (1995:17) averse that “when brothers Louis and august lumpier unveiled then cinematographer in the basement of grand café in Paris on December 28, 1895 they no doubt felt satisfied that they found new medium for recording and presentation of actualities Recording actualities is what a documentary does and that is what the lumpier brothers achieved by recording “Break time” in their factory The influences of the medium of film on mankind have been many and varied, carrying their ideals and aspirations beyond cultures
The development of film in Nigeria started with the colonial experience The first film show took place at the glover hall, Lagos on Monday August 12, 1903 this film show lasted for 10 nights Messrs Balboa of Barcelona Spain showed the film under the management of a Nigerian, Herbert Macaulay Nevertheless film production started rather late According to Balogun (1987:48) Obe was considered the first to have a standard film production in Nigeria by making mute films for the health department in the year 1936
In 1947 the Nigerian government established her own, federal film unit The film unit produced mainly newsreels and documentary firms in the fifties the film industry in Nigeria was dominated totally by foreigners and foreign films During this era, film so we ere done in cinema halls, village squares, school and church premises This public show of film, make it possible to show only films that are of “high technical quality” With the advent of video compact disc (VCD) or the digital video (DVD), the old culture of going to the cinema centers and public arenas for film show dropped Children and adults now sit indoors glued to their video Then the era of home movies was born Then the era of home movies was born Movies in English, pidgin English, Igbo Hausa and Yoruba flooded the market on daily basis
The proliferation of movie industries has brought about the production of movies that have negative influences on Igbo culture Huseimi (2002:31) lamented: “we need time to achieve this (sanity) because lot damage has been done already Here is an industry where a fellow is probably because he cried in a movie and drew the sympathy of the viewing public or she appeared of nude in movie One would then be compelled to ask Do these influences of home movies bring about cultural and behavioural change? Opubor et al (1995:1) answered this by saying that of all the media of communication, this motion picture has perhaps the most universal appeal and impact, a film can rise above the limitations of languages and cultural barriers by the power of its use of music and sound effects and can succeed in conveying much the same message to audiences of heterogeneous backgrounds”
What is then the ideal Igbo culture that home movies could influence? Mere Ada in Ikenga journal (1995:95 answers that; traditionally the Igbo attach great importance to good moral living In marriage contracts in law vow not to participate in anti social behaviour towards each other Relations undertaking business contract vow not to cheat each other Hosts taste food presented to their visitors in demonstration of the absence of poison The contract vindications of innocence in all aspects of social function results in the placement of a high premium on good moral and civil behaviuor In a society where relationships are on a personal intimate basis, a society which provides a system of checks and balances in behaviour the culture of such a society generally builds into its fabrics a system of sanctions that limit obverts deviant behaviour are status determinants in igbo society
The above enumerated rich culture of Igbo has never been portrayed in any Nigerian movies, even in Igbo films Rather, they portrayed the cultural life of Igbo as simple minded people whose main pre occupations are drinks and girls Their needs are simple and easily satisfied by cast off clothes scavenged from the dustbin When he is bullied or robbed, it is by his own type and as a group easily resorts to violence in which crude weapons are used That was why Aig imoukhuede (1985:49) revealed that: thirty years ago, Nigerian nationalist Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe led a protest against “sanders of the river” for its negative portrayal of the black man” Arulogun (1995:54) also laments that today gangster films constitute above 80% of what we see on our cinema screens In late fifties Ekotodo a cinema house in Ibadan was infested with young men dressed in jeans and hats with scarves tied around their necks like the cowboy in American west films Like the john Wayne type of the “wild”, west series on television How did these men come about their dresses and occasional pranks? It was through the influences of films shown in theatres in Lagos and Ibadan Infact ekotodo soon became a den of robbers, street fighters and rascals” The present wave of violence, robbery and murder committed daily in Igbo land is likely to have been influenced by films shown in home movies 
In this study, therefore, we are going to investigate these influences by asking question and seeking answers from those that watch these films especially the under listed five selected ones “The festival of fire, Battle of mosanga, Sins of the father, conspiracy and Blood money”
12 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Nigerian home movies assured a lot of importance in the area of entertainment and cultural transmission especially amongst the Igbo society This explains the time audiences (both children and adults) spend watching movies in their homes or their frequentr visit to video clubs

The behavioural pattern of people is formed by different factors in their environment Home movies have entered as novel part of the environment that has an over powering influences Since many of these Nigerian movies embody the tradition and culture of the Igbo people, if they are not of high technical quality, they will influence their audience negatively Those who do not have fair knowledge of the ideal Igbo culture are bound to imbibe the negative aspect unconsciously Also non IgboÂ’s would believe such practices as the cultural habit or practices of Igbo

Thus, the central problem of this research study is to ascertain how Nigerian home movies affect the igbo cultural practice and influence it negatively
13 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1 To ascertain the extent to which Nigerian home movies portray negatively the culture of IgboÂ’s
2 to determine if what is watched by the audience is believed by them to be the ideal cultural practice of the Igbo
3 To know if the contents of such movies are imbibed by both young and adult viewers
4 to determine how to improve such situations
14 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Home movies as agent of cultural have both audio and visual effects These effects bring about attitude and behaviuor change This research study intends to investigate into the causality of this change and the influences home movies have on Igbo culture

The study will be useful in identifying the extent to which home movies flooding the market despoil the true fabrics of the Igbo culture It is therefore, anticipated that the study will be useful to all those that watch Nigerian home movies especially IgboÂ’s

It will also help to instruct producers to be conscious of the negative influences on younger generation offer solutions to better ways of presentation of the cultural contents of Nigerian movies

Finally, the study would be useful to the government, movie industries, communication experts, students, researchers as well as parent in many ways:
15 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 Do the Nigerian home movies influence the igbo culture negatively?
2 Do the home movies bring about attitude formation and behavioral changes?
3 Do home movies cause negative change in attitude and behaviuor?
4 Do the negative portrayal of Igbo culture by the home movies make igbo imbibe the negative practices as ideal igbo culture?
16 research hypothesis
H1 Nigerian home movies influences igbo culture negatively
H0 Nigerian home movies do not influence igbo culture negatively
H2 home movies cause attitude formation and behavioural change
H0 home movies do not cause attitude formation and behavioral change
H3 home movies cause negatively changes in attitude and behavior
H0 home movies do not negative changes in attitude and behavior
H4 the negative portrayal of Igbo culture by Nigerian home movies makes Igbo imbibe the negative practices as ideal igbo culture
Home movies do not make Igbo imbibe the negative practices of the ideal igbo culture
17 DEFINITION OF TERMS
movie
conceptual: motion pictures, cinema or films of thin skin or mainframe, coated with a very sensitive substance for taking a photograph or a ribbon of celluloid or the like prepared with such a coated foir takinf Instantaneous photograph for projection by cinema monograph
Operational: The home movies festival of fire, battle of mosanga, conspiracy, sins of the father and blood money
Negative:
Conceptual: Expressing the absence of any positive character that stops indices or makes powerless
Operational: Absence of expression on positive character of IgboÂ’s by Nigerian home movies
Influences:
Conceptual: Power to affect somebodyÂ’s character, belief or action through examples, fear and administration
Operational: The power of the five selected home movies has to influence character, belief or action of igbo people negatively
Culture:
Conceptual: Improvement of mental facilities refined taste or judgment high intellectual and aesthetic state of intellectual, artistic and social development of a group, type and degree of civiliasation (arch) social group characterized by a specified level of material achievements
Operational: The way of life, belief, system, habits and practices of the igbo
18 ASSUMPTIONS
1 That the Nigeria viewing public both adult and youths watch local movies
2 That the Igbo youths as well as adults could unconsciously imbibe what they see especially the negatively aspects as current and old practices of the igbo culture
3 Those Nigerian home movies tend to influence the culture of IgboÂ’s negatively
4 that the other non igbo viewers tend toil perceive what they have watched as the ideal representation of the way of life of the igbo
19 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1 This study is limited to a particular population of igbo especially selected adult Igbo members of Enugu urban that are conversant with the culture and the contents of the five selected home movies
2 Due to time and financial constraints, the researchers could not go the extra mile to in corporate all the population as well as all the movies that are locally produced in Nigeria

REFERENCES
Aig-imuokhued, F (1995): A national film industry: 
Assessment of problems and suggested solutions in the development and growth of film industry in Nigeria by Alfred E Opubor et al, Lagos, third press international
Dosumu, Sanya (1995): The role of the film in cultural identity, in Opubor et al op cit
Balogun, Francoise (1987): The cinema in Nigeria, Enugu fourth dimension publishers
Husemi, Shaibu (2002): Keep your money new movies go on break, the guardian newspaper, Friday 1, pg 31
Opubor, E Alfred et al op cit

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