EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON DEMAND FOR URBAN DOMESTIC TOURISM IN KENYA

By

Dr. A. J. Misiko

Presented To

Department of Hospitality Management

ABSTRACT

This study examined the effect of psychological factors on demand for urban domestic tourism in Kenya and conducted in selected tourist destinations within Nairobi and Nakuru town. The sample size was 384 respondents: 254 respondents from Nairobi city and 130 respondents from Nakuru town surveyed using multistage sampling procedure. This study revealed that perception, learning, and motivation push factors specifically self esteem, personal confidence, going to study, relieve stress, be together with family, escape from normal routine, need to be recognized, encounter different cultures and lifestyles, visit new places, annual leave, fun and enjoyment, enrich myself intellectually, sense of adventure, conferences, religion pilgrimage, and disposable income, had major influences on demand for urban domestic tourism. This study recommends players in the tourism and hospitality industry to portray good images of tourist destinations, develop tourism products and services of value as well as unforgettable experiences that will satisfy domestic tourist needs.   
KEYWORDS: Urban domestic tourism, Psychological factors, Tourism demand, Motivation, Perception, Learning.  
INTRODUCTION

Kenya is endowed with a distinctive combination of tourist attractions spread all over the country that not only bring international tourists from all over the world but also local tourists too. For a Published long period of time, Kenya has long been oriented towards international markets which has proved detrimental because of the seasonality, political, social, economic and competitive factors associated with international tourism (Kenya Economic Report, 2009; Ndivo et al., 2012). It is believed that for the tourism industry to succeed, international and domestic tourism should complement each other (Mariki et al., 2011). It essential therefore, for Kenya to promote domestic tourism so as to have continued tourism operations throughout the year and enhance economic growth. An increasingly important and fast growing form of tourism that can significantly contribute to the growth of domestic tourism in Kenya is urban tourism. Urban tourism brings significant economic benefits and plays a vital role in generating income and maintenance of public services and infrastructure in the urban areas, therefore it is a crucial resource for local residents and cities (WTO, 2012).  
Even though most tourism activities all over the world takes place in urban areas, it is only of late that it has been recognized as an important sector of tourism (Aksoz and Bac, 2012). Urban tourism has played a major role in significantly contributing to the economical increase of most European cities (Delitheou et al., 2010) and  has been a new pillar industry for the economic development of Shangai (Hong, 2014). The growth of urban tourism has been stimulated by cultural and historical attractions, event and shopping attractions as well as business travel, thereby providing opportunities for urban regeneration such as those experienced in Glasgow (Scotland), Barcelona in Spain and Baltimore (USA) (Ãiraci et al., 2008; Medlick, 2003). For a long time, tourism has been associated with locals travelling from urban areas to tourist resorts and rural areas, however, in recent times urban tourism has gained popularity as many cities have transformed into major tourist destinations (Garbea, 2013).   
It has been noted that majority of the local population in -

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