CITY BRANDING: EXPLORING THE BRAND "BEIRUT" AS A TOURISM DESTINATION IN THE BRITISH MARKET

By

Hanna El Maalouf

Presented To

Department of Hospitality Management

ABSTRACT

In this study, brand of Beirut is evaluated in the context of British consumers. Tourism and Destination Branding Tool was used in determining the questionnaire. Accordingly, questionnaire was designed and distributed to randomly chosen 383 British people. Sample size was achieved through using sample size calculator over the internet.  However, only 100 questionnaires was totally filled by the participants and therefore, only those were included in the analysis. In the analysis, descriptive statistics were used just as it is used in STCRC study. In this perspective touristsâ general expectations from the short and long term holidays were determined and compared with the results of experience gained in Beirut. Findings showed that British people mostly look for fun and entertaining places which also have a good accommodation. In long holidays they also look for good restaurants and sport facilities. Nevertheless, Beirut is found by them as far below compare to their expectations. In fact, they were not satisfied with their stays in Beirut and not willing to come back to the city in the future. This result also showed itself in the drop of the tourist coming to the city. In this context number of preventive measures should be taken by the government urgently to correct this situation.  
KEYWORDS: Tourism, Brand Image, Beirut, City Branding  
INTRODUCTION 

According to Keller (1998), the source of the term branding comes from the phrase âbrandâ, which is an old assertion of the Norse standing for burning and employed for marking the livestock of the cattle owners to distinguish them from others. In the past, it was made compulsory by the unions to press the specfic marks on the products that artificers offered for the purpose of protecting their clients as well as themselves from lower standard of quality. In addition to this, artists who perform fine arts also embroil their marks on their works (Kotler and Keller, 2006). In the current business environment, branding has importance in the view of the clients as well as the companies. In the view of de Chernatony and McDonald (1992), a successful branding creates differentiating characteristics for the products, services, places or individuals in such a manner that generates added value for the consumers to observe related features which heavily fulfil their anticipations of the offering. Just like the companies, cities and places can also take advantage of branding nevertheless there is lack of literature on the mentioned issue. In this context, in this study, brand of Beirut is evaluated in the context of British consumers. Therefore, followings are the objectives of this study: -

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