Presented To

Department of Chemical Engineering


This project work is on the bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal.

The charcoal used for this work was made from pieces of animal bone by carbonization method. It was then activated into two different samples. Firstly, the basic sample was activated using anaphoric acid (H2 s04) while the other was activated by just heating as a control for the experiment; both at a constant temperature of 5000c and approximate time of 2hours.

They were both size reduced into fines and sieved into particle 3ye of 150um portion of the crude palm oil was degummed and neutralized for bleaching. Each interval of bleaching with both the acid activated and the ordinary activated charcoal was 8mins and temperature of 1500c over a hot plate, and subsequent filtration of the solution.

A spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance of the oils (crude and bleached) at selected wave length of 480Um. This was converted as the degree of colour reduction expressed in percentages.

Results obtained showed that optimum quantity of the charcoal for bleaching is 5% by weight, of the oil, which gives a percentage colour reduction as 97. 14% for the acid activated and 93.57% for the calcinated sample.

Also, the characterization of both the original oil and the bleaching oil showed that the later has appreciable properties. Hence colour reduction was observable by naked eyes.


Title Page

Approval Page

Letter of Transmittal




Chapter one

10 Introduction

11 Preamble

12 Objective

13 Scope of study

20 Literature Review

210 Chemical composition of palm oil

211 Carotenes

212 Phosphatides

213 Gums

214 Compositions and standards of palm oil

220 Spoilage factors of palm oil

221 Preventive measures

222 Inhibitors

230 Refining of creebe palm oil

231 Degumming

232 Neutralization

233 Bleaching

234 Deodorization

235 Chemical bleaching method

236 Accretion bleaching

237 Bleaching by adsorption

240 Adsorption

241 Uses of adsorption

252 Physical adsorption

252 Chemisorptions

260 Adsorbents

261 Bauxite

26 2 Decolourising carbons

263 Gas-adsorbent carbon

264 Molecular screening activated carbon

265 Synthetic polymeric adsorbents

266 Silica Gel

267 Alumna

268 Bone char

270 Charcoal

271 Properties of charcoal

272 Activated charcoal

273 Methods of charcoal activation

274 Properties of activated charcoal

275 Chemical properties of activated charcoal

276 Physical properties of activated charcoal

277 Uses of activated charcoal


30 Experimental method

310 Materials

311 Material treatment

320 Charcoal activation using acid

321 Charcoal activation by heat treatment

330 Degumming of Palm oil

331 Neutralization

340 Bleaching of palm oil

341 Experimental set-up

350 Characterization of palm oil

351 Specific gravity

352 Iodine value

353 Free fatty acid

354 Saponification value

355 Esterification value

356 Process flow chart


40 Experimental result

410 Effect of bleaching sample

420 Effect of temperature on bleaching

430 Colour observation at absorbance

440 Concise table for characterization


50 Discussion


60 Conclusion


70 Recommendation


Table of nomenclature


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