FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FROM PALM WINE

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Chemical Engineering

ABSTRACT

This research work was arrived as the formulation and production of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) from the fermentation of palm wine. A fresh palm wine was ated which was obtained from Emene in Enugu State. The characteristics that was tested before and after fermentation were; specific gravity, refractive index and PH value of the fermentated palm wine was first determined, after which samples were formulated for fermentation. The yeast that was used in the course of fermentation process was the bakers yeast (sacchromycess Cerevisae). 10 samples of 400ml each of the palm wine were used for the fermentation process, with variations in their yeast content and days of fermentation. These were done under aerobic condition. After fermentation, the samples were respectively distilled after fermentation with their corresponding values of; specific gravity, % by volume % by weight concentration and density of the distillates determined and recorded respectively. Further more, the distillates obtained were separated and added together accordingly to be re – distilled. Thus, their corresponding values of % by volume, % by weight, specific gravity of the re – distilled products were determine3de and recorded accordingly. From the result obtained, it shows that the minimum volume of alcohol obtained is 27.52% while the standard volume of alcohol required is 37% minimum. This standard volume of alcohol was gotten from standard organisation of Nigeria (SON).

TABLE OF CONTENT.

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Objective of the study

1.2 Scope of the work

1.3 Significance

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Source of palm wine

2.1 Nature or composition of palm wine

2.2 Micro – organism in palm wine and its effect on alcohol production.

2.3 Fermentation process

2.3.1 Biological theory of fermentation

2.3.2 Fermentation of carbohydrate to produce ethanol

2.3.3 Factors that affect fermentation of palm oil

2.4 Properties and uses of ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

2.4.1 Physical properties of ethyl alcohol

2.4.2 Chemical properties of ethanol

2.4.3 Uses of ethanol

2.5.0 Distillation: A separation process

2.5.1 Batch distillation

2.5.2 Flash distillation

2.5.3 Continuous/Rectification distillation

2.5.3.1 Fractionating operation

2.5.3.2 Rectification and stipping combination

2.6.0 Multi component distillation

2.6.1 Two forms of multi component distillation

2.6.1.1 Azeotropic distillation

2.6.1.2 Extractive distillation

2.6.2 Companion of Azeotropic and extractive distillation

2.7.0 Low – pressure distillation

2.8.0 Factors to consider in selecting a solvent during distillation operation

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Experimental Analysis

3.1 Collection Of Palm Wine Sample

3.2 Experimental determination of variables during fermentation

3.3 Experimental method

3.4 Experimental result

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 Recommendation

CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0 REFERENCES

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Appendix IV

Appendix V

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