Presented To

Department of Chemical Engineering


This projects is aimed at knowing the process and quality factor in Laundary and Toilet Soap Projection. Various factors affected the quality of the soap produced. These include the method used in production, types and nature of oils used, the percentage of the additives in the soap and the ratio at which oils are mixed to react with alkali.

The work was carried out using one type of oil, namely, palm kernel oil for production of laundary soap and a blend oil in the ration of 95:5 (PKO to soya bean oil) for production of Toilet Soap respectively. The oil was firstly subjected to various analytical tests.

Using both blended and unblended oil for production of Toilet and laundary soap in the ration of 2:1 of oil to alkali, soaps were produced which varied in quality as a result of either the ratio of mixing, the nature of oil or by both. Additives like sodium silicate, green pigment, pink pigment, citrolene perfume were added to improve the soaps quality and appearance.

The omo soap samples produced; laundry and toilet soap have some distinguishable properties and these properties were found to be dependent on the different properties of the oils employed.


Content page

Title page

Letter of transmittal

Approval page



Table of content



Scope and objective of projects

Chapter two

Literature survey

History of soap making

Raw materials used for soap making

Soap manufacturing processes

Processes and steps involved in production of soap

Quality factors in soap production

Chapter three

Experimental procedures

Equipment and materials used

General procedure

Experimental procedure for laundry soap

Experimental procedure for toilt soap

Experimental analysis

Determinations of saponification value

Determination of free falty acid

Determination of free caustic alkali

Determination of moisture content

Determination of PA of soap

Chapter four

Experimental results







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