AN INTELLIGENT LEAD ACID BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR SOLAR AND OFF-PEAK ENERGY STORAGE

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering

ABSTRACT
The development of  micro-girds  which combine several localized systems into a small power network has drawn  recent attention. They can operate either as a 
self-contained energy network or they can be integrated into a centralized power grid.  A variety of technologies have been studied to use solar energy systems as a form of  micro-grid  to enhance the reliability and performance  of the system. However, the operation of  these  systems  is not without problems, and  intermittency of the energy  from  the  sun  is  the major one. This thesis proposes a microcontroller-based solar energy management  system which combines  battery  management  and  storage technology to address this issue. This approach  uses an  energy system with  a solar panel array,  a maximum power point tracking  (MPPT) unit,  a battery management system, and a bidirectional inverter which is connected to the electric utility grid. Off-peak  energy  management  also  is  embedded  in  the system to further increase  the economic benefits.
Table of Contents  
An Abstract of    iii 
Acknowledgements  v 
Table of Contents  - vi 
List of Figures    ix 
Chapter 1 Introduction  1 
11 Research Background and Motivation  - 1 
12 Literature Review    4 
13 Research Objective - 6 
Chapter 2 Methodology   7 
21 The Battery Management System  - 7 
22 The Off-peak Energy Management System    11 
23 State of Charge (SOC) Calculation  13 
Chapter 3 System Description   15 
31 Solar Panel Array Supported by the MPPT Unit  - 16 
311 Solar Panel Array  - 16 
312 The MPPT Unit    17 
32 BMS and Battery Bank  20 
321 Battery Bank - 20 
322 BMS  - 22 
33 Central Control Unit - 25 
34 Graphical User Interface (GUI)    27 
35 Protection Unit  30 
351 Hardware  - 30 
352 Software  - 31 
36 CAN Function  - 31 
Chapter 4 System Performance and Research Outcomes  33 
41 Performance of the BMS - 34 
42 SOC Estimation   35 
43 Graphical User Interface (GUI)    37 
44 Data Analysis  - 38 
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Direction of Future research  - 40 
Reference 43 
Appendix  - 46 
A Introduction to Lead Acid Batteries  46 
B Thin-film Solar Cells    47 
C The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Method   48

List of Figures 
Figure 1-1 Diagram of Residential Grid Connected PV System  - 2 
Figure 1-2 Hourly Average Residential Load Profile  - 3 
Figure 2-1 Block Diagram of the BMS 9 
Figure 2-2 Flowchart of BMS Algorithm  10 
Figure 2-3 Off-peak Storage Strategy  12 
Figure 2-4 Example of SOC versus OCV Chart  - 14 
Figure 3-1 Solar Array with Energy Storage Battery  16 
Figure 3-2 The 1KW Roof Mounted Solar Array  17 
Figure 3-3 System Schematic 19 
Figure 3-4 Schematic of Boost Converter   19 
Figure 3-5 The MPPT Unit  - 20 
Figure 3-6 Lead Acid Battery  22 
Figure 3-7 Configuration of the ECU Module    23 
Figure 3-8 Configuration of the ECU Module    23 
Figure 3-9 Battery Bank with one BMS Local Module  - 24
Figure 3-10 The Complete Battery Bank Installation  25 
Figure 3-11 Central Module and PC with ABC150 Remote Control Panel  - 26 
Figure 3-12 ABC-150 Bi-direction Inverter  - 26 
Figure 3-13 Diagram of Inverter, Central Module, CAN Interface, MPPT Module, 
ECU Module, and EQU Module  - 27 
Figure 3-14 Page Showing the Initial Settings - 28 
Figure 3-15 Main Page   28 
Figure 3-16 Dispatch Function Page - 29 
Figure 4-1 Basic Schematic of the System  - 33 
Figure 4-2 Time Diagram of Vmax and Vmin with BMS    34 
Figure 4-3 Time Diagram of Vmax and Vmin without BMS  35 
Figure 4-4 Plot of Operation Current and SOC Curve Using OCV Method  36 
Figure 4-5 Plot of Battery Bank Operation Current and SOC Curve when Integrating 
OCV Method with Coulomb Counting Method - 36 
Figure 4-6 GUI and Data Plots for the Solar Battery System  37 
Figure 4-7 Time Chart of Solar Voltage and Battery Bank Voltage 38 
Figure 4-8 Time Diagram of Load Simulation and Output Current Provided from 
Solar and Battery Bank  - 39 
Figure A-1 Structure of a Lead Acid Battery 46 
Figure B-1 The Sketch of Solar Cell - 48 
Figure C-1 The Max Power Point of the I-V Curve and the P-V Curve 49 




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