Wireless-based Text Entry System for Handicap

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering

ABSTRACT
Text entry system can be found commonly in modern computer and mobile devices 
such as smartphone and tablet. Despite this, these text entry systems are not easily 
accessible by handicaps. The major problem with the normal text entry system such as 
the “QWERTY” keyboard, it would be very difficult for the handicaps to input the keys. 
To use an ordinary keyboard, major hand movement is needed for them because the 
keyboard contains over a hundred keys. They might have to move across the keyboard 
to enter the desired keys. Hence, the usage of a keyboard for the handicaps is not 
recommended especially for those who suffered from motor disabilities. 
A new wireless-based text entry system is described in this research to help the 
handicaps to ease their lives and input text faster. This new text entry system will be 
much smaller than the traditional keyboard. In addition, this system would be designed 
to be portable, lightweight, long operating hour and user-friendly. Besides, this system 
enables the handicaps input text efficiently with minimum hand movement. Besides, 
the handicaps will only require one hand to hold the equipment and one finger to 
interact and to input text. 
This equipment will be built using the Printed Circuit Board (PCB), the Arduino Uno 
board (CT-UNO) and a Bluetooth module. PCB is used instead of using breadboard is 
to keep the device with the minimum wires. Besides, the Bluetooth is used to ensure 
the device can communicate to the computer wirelessly. 
The algorithm used in this text entry system is Press-Drag-Release algorithm where the 
user first pressed on the infrared text entry board, then the user drags the finger around 
the board to choose the letter and then release. Next, the respective letters will be printed 
on the computer. As a result, the user only needs to perform 3 steps to input a letter. 
Apart from inputting letter to the computer, the text entry system is also a combination 
of keyboard and mouse where the user can use the text entry system as a mouse and 
navigate through the computer like the ordinary mouse. 
The average entry rate of this text entry system is about 5 WPM. The result is better 
than some of the system that designed for the handicapped.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - v
ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
LIST OF FIGURES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x
LIST OF TABLES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xiv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xv
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
11 Problem Statement and Motivation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 
12 Background Information - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 
121 Typewriter - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 
122 Standard 101/104 keys “QWERTY” keyboard - - - - - - - - - - 2 
123 The 12-Key Keypad for Mobile Phone - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 
124 Speech-to-Text - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 
13 Project Scope - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 
14 Project Objective - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 
15 What Have Been Achieved - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 
16 Impact, Significance and Contribution - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 
16 Report Organization - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 
CHAPTER 2: Literature Review - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
21 Text Entry System Based on a Minimal Scan Matrix for Severely Physically 
Handicapped People - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 
211 The Design of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 
212 Advantages and Disadvantages - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 
213 Comparison with the proposed solution - - - - - - - - - - - 9 
22 Using a Game Controller for Text Entry to Address Abilities and Disabilities Specific 
to Persons with Neuromuscular Diseases - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 
22 1 The Design of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 
222 Advantages and Disadvantages - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 
223 Comparison with the proposed solution - - - - - - - - - - - 11 
23 BrailleKey: An alternative Braille text input system - - - - - - - - - 12 
231 The Design of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 
232 Advantages and Disadvantages - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 
233 Comparison with the proposed solution - - - - - - - - - - - 13
24 An Ambiguous Keyboard Based on "Character Graphical Association" - - - - 14 
241 The Design of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 
242 Advantages and Disadvantages - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 
243 Comparison with the proposed solution - - - - - - - - - - - 15 
25 Infrared-based Text Entry System for Handicap - - - - - - - - - - 16 
251 The Design of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 
252 Advantages and Disadvantages - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 
253 Comparison with the proposed solution - - - - - - - - - - - 18 
CHAPTER 3: System Design - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19
31 System Overview - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 
32 Full System Diagram - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 
33 Hardware Implementation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 
331 Flowchart of Hardware Implementation - - - - - - - - - - - 24 
34 Software Implementation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 
341 Flowchart for Software Implementation - - - - - - - - - - - 26 
35 System Flow Diagram (Hardware and Software Implementation) - - - - - 27 
36 The Usage of the GUI Program - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 
361 Alphabets - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 
362 Copy, Cut and Paste Function - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32 
363 Mouse Simulation Function - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 
364 Tab, Enter and Select All Function - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 
365 Caps Lock and Shift - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 
366 Punctuation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37 
367 Backspace - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38 
CHAPTER 4: Methodology and Tools - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
41 Design Methodology - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39 
42 Hardware Components - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 
421 IR LED Transmitter and Receiver - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 
422 10K ohm Resistors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 
423 Arduino Header Pin - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 
424 CT-UNO Development Board - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 
425 Cytron Bluetooth Module and the Cytron XBee Shield - - - - - - - 44 
426 The Infrared Text Entry Board (PCB) - - - - - - - - - - - 45 
43 Hardware Development Tools - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 46 
431 Arduino IDE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 46 
432 EAGLE Software - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47 
44 Software Development Tools - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48
441 Visual Studio 2013 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48 
CHAPTER 5: Implementation and Testing - - - - - - - - - - - - 49
51 Final Product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 49 
52 Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 
521 Test Case 1: Lowercase Alphabets and ‘Space’ Key - - - - - - - - 52 
522 Test Case 2: ‘Copy’, ‘Cut’, ‘Paste’, ‘Select All’ - - - - - - - - - 53 
523 Test Case 3: ‘Backspace’ Key - - - - - - - - - - - - - 56 
524 Test Case 4: Uppercase Alphabets and ‘Tab’ Key - - - - - - - - 57 
525 Test Case 5: Numbers, Punctuations, ‘Shift’ Key and ‘Enter’ Key - - - - 58 
526 Test Case 6: Mouse Function - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 
53 Speed - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63 
54 Power Consumption - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 66 
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68
61 Project Review - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68 
62 Novelties - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 69 
63 Limitations of the System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 69 
64 Future Enhancement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 70 
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71
APPENDIX A: The Subroutine of Analysing the Key Signal from the Device - - A-1
APPENDIX B: Poster - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B-1
APPENDIX C: Turnitin Report - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C-1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Rapid growth in ICT causes a great demand for digital devices such as 
smartphones, tablets as well as desktop PC and laptop (Panwar, Sarcar, and Samanta, 
2012) To interact with those devices, we need text entry systems such as keyboards 
Generally, there is a lot of modern text entry system invented to ease our life The most 
important matter to be concerned when user input text into a computer is they must 
have the ability to type speedily and precisely (Clawson et al, 2005) Currently, 
keyboards provide the most common way to communicate with computers The most 
popular keyboard is the “QWERTY” keyboard (Noyes, 1998) This text entry system 
can be used on both mobile devices and computer For example, a “QWERTY’ 
keyboard is commonly used in computer and for mobile devices, a virtual “QWERTY” 
keyboard on a touchscreen is used Unfortunately, this text entry system may become 
an obstacle for the handicaps to interact with devices (Fu and Ho, 2009) A handicapped 
person would be able to use the “QWERTY” keyboard, but it would be very difficult 
for them to enter the keys 
11 Problem Statement and Motivation
Handicaps may find difficulties such as they may take a longer time to input 
when using the traditional text entry system such as using the “QWERTY” keyboard 
By using this type of keyboard, they have to move their fingers across the keyboard and 
enter the words they want They will feel tired as their fingers will feel fatigue and give 
up on typing easily Unfortunately, input devices that are specially designed for 
handicaps will be expensive and they will not be able to afford the devices A new text 
entry system is needed to help them and solve the problems they are facing To solve 
this problem, a new text entry system is proposed to help the handicaps to input text 
more easily and efficiently Besides, the system will be developed using low-cost 
components The system will be a wireless-based system to make the system more 
portable and easy to use

12 Background Information
121 Typewriter
A typewriter is an ancient text entry system used between the 1870s and 1980s 
The typewriter has a “QWERTY” layout just like the modern keyboard The typewriter 
is shown in Figure 1-1 below

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