RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION COPING STRATEGIES IN LOW- INCOME HOUSEHOLDS OF FEDERAL TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Biochemistry

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the relationship between food security, nutritional status and poverty 
alleviation coping strategies of low income households of selected Federal tertiary 
institutions in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Specific objectives were to determine food security 
status in terms of food availability, accessibility, and consumption pattern; establish 
nutritional status using anthropometric and 24-hours recall dietary intake; determine poverty 
alleviation strategies used by low-income households; examine income and nutritional status 
of low-income households of Federal tertiary institutions of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study 
used descriptive survey design with questionnaire and personal interviews to obtain data.
Data obtained were analyzed using, frequency, percentage, means, Pearson Product Moments 
of Correlation, regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that 
most household heads between ages 36–45 years (32.4%) and 46–55 years (32%) were 
dominant among low income households in selected Federal tertiary institutions in Kaduna 
State. Also, most (53.4%) respondents had between 5 and 12 adults‟ living together and
capable of providing adequate food for their households, majority (61%) had no educational 
qualification beyond West African School Certificate. Most adequately available food items 
to the low income households in Federal tertiary institutions in Kaduna State were 
legumes/pulse/vegetables (69.4%), followed by fruits (mangoes, guava and others), roots and 
tubers/cereals (38%: yams, bread, tuwon). Cereals and cereals products (maize, sorghum and 
millets) were most accessible and consumed and attracted highest mean accessibility of 5.97 
and mean consumption level of 4.333. Least accessed and consumed food items were meat 
(beef, goat meat and others) 4.09, fish and eggs that attracted least mean consumption level 
of 2.99 for the low income households. Data also revealed that 243(59%) of adults were 
healthy compared to 166 (41%) that were either acutely malnourished, moderate malnutrition 
or those at risk, as a consequence of their consumption pattern. Majority (64%) of the low 
income households of some Federal tertiary institutions in Kaduna State acquired land for 
agricultural activities through purchase, short-term lease or loan for agricultural production, 
as a preferred poverty alleviation strategy to mitigate shortfalls of income for households to 
be food secured. Also, significant relationship between income and nutritional status of 
respondent showed household members with higher income having higher nutritional status.
The study therefore concluded that majority (60%) of households in selected Federal tertiary 
institutions in Kaduna State were food secured more on cereals/cereal products, adequate in 
nutritional status and adopted agricultural activities for poverty alleviation coping strategies 
to augment low income status and poverty conditions. Food secured household conditions 
would result in an improved food availability, accessibility and good nutritional status of the 
low income households of selected Federal tertiary Institutions in Kaduna state. The study 
recommended among others that, low-income households should explore proteinous sources 
of food like meat, fish, milk and legume crops to balance for the available cereal and cereal 
products. Low-income households should explore other means of generating income like 
poultry production, fish production, large production and purchase of grains and vegetables 
for sale during time of financial stress. 
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii 
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - - v
ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Content - - - - - - - - - vii
List of Figures - - - - - - - - - xi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - xiii
List of Appendices - - - - - - - - - xvi
Abbreviations - - - - - - - - - - xvii
Operational Definition of terms - - - - - - - xix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - 7
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 8
1.5 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - - 8
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 9
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study - - - - - - 11
1.8 Delimitations of the Study - - - - - - - 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 13
2.2. Concepts of Food Security and Nutritional Status 
of Low- Income Households - - - - - - - 19
2.3. Definitions of Food Security, Nutritional Status, and 
Poverty alleviation - - - - - - - - 31
2.4 The Three Elements of Food Security - - - - - 38
2.5 Nutritional Status of Low-Income Household families in Nigeria - - 47
2.6 Factors that affect Household Food Security - - - - - 58
2.7 Low-Income Households - - - - - - - 70
2.8. Influence of Food supply on Low-Income Families - - - - 74
2.9 Coping strategies Adopted to Alleviate Household Food Security in Nigeria 78
2.10 Empirical Studies - - - - - - - - 81
2.11 Summary of Reviewed Literature - - - - - - 88
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - - 90
3.2 Population for the Study - - - - - - - 91
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure - - - - - 91
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - - 94
3.4.1 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - - 95
3.4.2 Pilot Study - - - - - - - - - 96
3.4.3 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - - 96
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection - - - - - - 96
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis - - - - - - - 98
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Analysis of Demographic factor Variables of Respondents - - - 101
4.2 Answering Research Questions - - - - - - 108
Research Question One - - - - - - -
Research Question Two - - - - - - -
Research Question Three - - - - - - -
Research Question Four - - - - - - -
Research Question Five - - - - - - -
Research Question Six - - - - - - -
4.3. Testing of Null Hypotheses - - - - - - - 162
Test of Null Hypothesis One - - - - - - -
Test of Null Hypothesis Two - - - - - - -
Test of Null Hypothesis Three - - - - - -
Test of Null Hypothesis Four - - - - - -
Test of Null Hypothesis Five - - - - - - -
Test of Null Hypothesis Six - - - - - - -
4.4 Discussion on Findings - - - - - - - 173
4.5 Summary Major Findings - - - - - - - 182
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 184
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 184
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 186
5.4 Suggestions for further studies- - - - - - - 188
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - - 189
LIST OF APPPENDICES
Appendix 1: Letter of Introduction - - - - - - - - 207
Appendix 11: Questionnaire - - - - - - - - 208 

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