IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN REGULATING THE ACTIVITIES OF NIGERIA INSURANCE INDUSTRY ON YOUR COMPANY

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Public Administration

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is concerned on the impact of the government policies in regulating the activities of insurance companies operating in Nigeria. The government responsibility to supervise, regulate and control the activities of insurance companies and intermediaries is to protect the interest of the insuring public and to save them from exploitation by unreliable insurers. Because of the intangible nature of insurance product, the government wants to make sure that those engaged in it must be competent person who will fulfill their promise and pledges when the need arises.

Also because of the complexity of insurance business, it is necessary that the government regulate it to protect the policy holders. Also because of violation of public trust that occurs in insurance transistors, the government has found it necessary to regulate insurance industries so as to control such violations. The project attempts to appraise the effectiveness of government policies in regulating the insurance companies in Nigeria. The insurance industry in Nigeria has acute shortage of high level of manpower for most classes of insurance, also many Nigerians suffer financial loss due to lack of knowledge in insurance.

Due to this problem, government should introduce programs regarding to insurance to the public as to highlight them on the benefit accrued to insurance due to constant financial loss they encounter as a result of lack of insurance knowledge.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

Approval………………………………………………………………i

Dedication………………………………… - ………………………ii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………iii

Abstract………………………………………………………………iv

Table of contents………………………………………………………v

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction ……………………………………………………1

11 Background of the study………………………………………1

12 Objective of the study……………………… - ………………9

13 Purpose of the study…………………………………………10

14 Significance of the study……………… - ……………………11

15 Scope of the study……………………………………………12

16 Definition of terms …………………………………………12

CHAPTER TWO

20 Literature review………………………………………………14

21 The origin of the insurance industry…………………………14

22 Development of modern insurance business in Nigeria………16

23 The insurance market and intermediaries …………………19

24 The socio-economic significance of insurance …………… - 20

25 Structure and performance of the insurance industry ……… - 23

26 Government regulation of the insurance companies ……25

2 7 The impact of structural adjustment programs on insurance companies operation in Nigeria ………………37

CHAPTER THREE

30 Research methodology …………………………………39

Introduction ………………………………………………39

31 Restatements of research question and hypothesis ……39

32 Research design ……………………………………………41

33 Sources of Data ……………………………………………41

34 Population of study …………………………… - …………42

35 Sample size / Design and procedure ………… - …………44

36 Data collection instrument / process ……………………45

37 Data presentation and analysis on techniques …………46

38 Limitation of the methodology …………… - ……………47

CHAPTER FOUR

40 Data presentation and analysis ………………… - ………49

41 Presentation and analysis of data …………………………49

42 Hypothesis testing …………………………………………56

43 Analysis of result ……………………… - …………………58

CHAPTER FIVE

50 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

51 Summary of findings ………………………………………60

52 Recommendations ………………………………… - ……62

53 Suggestions for further research ……………… - ………63

54 Conclusions …………………………………………………64

References …………………………………………………65

Appendix ……………………… - …………………………66

CHAPTER ONE

11 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

"Risk is a phenomenon which has been in existence since the beginning of the world Risk exists whenever the future is unknown" (Lemon 1989: 17) This means that the word implies some element of doubt about the future and the outcome may be worse than what it had been at the moment This man in his daily operations could be viewed as a risk manager, in that man does his best possible to reduce, eliminate, avoid, retain or share risk where they are present

Though there were some forms of risk management before the advent of insurance companies in Nigeria such as the extended family system, age grade association and others Insurance in its modern form was introduced into Nigeria by British

In 1921, the Royal Exchange Assurance Company was established and it was the first insurance company to open full branch in Nigeria In 1949, three other companies emerged In 1958, Africa insurance company By 1965, the number of insurance companies rose to 70 In 1977, the Nigeria Re- insurance company was established as a federal government owned insurance company Nigeria was however under the British colonial rule up to 1960 when she gained her political independence and as a developing country From 1960 to date a lot of insurance companies came into operation Insurance is a modern method of sharing loss or spreading risk lightly over a great number of people so that the few unfortunate ones or persons who sustain or suffer loss do not heavy financial loss as a result of their misfortune to the community The insured pay premium into a common pool outcome of which the unfortunate few who suffer loss are compensated

The secondary function of insurance companies includes:

1 Provision of loans for building on the security of a life policy

2 Encourage and promote commercial enterprise men and industrialist

3 The accumulated sum of money by insurer reinvested to state approved securities and this helps to provide the state with a steady flow investment funds with which the state can provide development and promotions to the local industries which will be of benefit to the community

Insurance is a contract whereby a person called the insurer or assurer agrees in consideration of money paid to him or her known as premium by another person called the insured or assured to indemnify him against loss resulting to him on the happening of certain events However, it was known that risk exist whenever the future is unknown and therefore insurance exist primarily to combat the adverse effect of risk

The purpose of insurance is to compensate or indemnify the victim for his financial loss It should be noted here that the insurance neither eliminate the loss nor stops the disaster from happening, what insurance does is to soften the blow in a purely financial sence by offering monetary compensation to the victim whereby placing him in the same financial position after loss as he was before though within the terms of the policy

Re- insurance is the transfer of insurance business from one insurance company to another The original insurer who obtain the insurance contract from the insured or assured is called the direct insurer or the ceding company Re- insurance arose form the need of the original insurer to spread the risk he has undertaken Under re- insurance contract is between the ceding company policies Therefore in the event of a loss, the insured cannot enforce the re- insurance contract

However, the effect of re- insurance contract on the ceding company includes:

i Re- insurance reduces the probability of the ceding company's ruin by assuming his catastrophe risk

ii Re- insurance stabilizes the ceding company's balance sheet by taking on apart of his risk of random fluctuation risk of change and risk error

iii Re- insurance increases the amount of capital effectively available to the ceding company by freeing equity that was tied up to cover risk

iv Re- insurance enlarges the ceding company's underwriting capacity by accepting a proportional share of risks and by providing part of the necessary reserves

The insurance sector is made up of a large number of companies with varying sizes, among which the NAICOM was established The government uses this commission to regulate the insurance industry The government uses this commission to regulate the insurance industry It was established in 1997 by NAICOM decree N0 1 of 1997 Prior to the establishment of National insurance commission, the insurance business regulation and supervision were done by the insurance department of the Ministry of finance

The national insurance supervisory board (NISB) was established in 1991 to take over the supervision of insurance from the director of insurance National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) is the head by the commission finance and administration and deputy director for insurance technical

NAICOM Decree 1 of 1997 stated the functions of NAICOM as follows:

1 To ensure the effective administration, supervision regulation and control of insurance business in Nigeria

2 Establishment of standards of the conduct of insurance business in Nigeria

3 Approval of rate insurance premium to be paid of all classes of insurance business

4 Regulation of transactions between insurers and re- insurance in Nigeria and those outside Nigeria

5 Ensuring adequate protection of strategic government assets and other properties

6 To act as adviser to the federal government on all insurance related matters

7 Approve standards, conditions and warranties applicable to all classes of insurance business

8 To protect insurance policy holders and beneficiaries and third parties to insurance contract

9 To publish for sale and distribution to the public, annual reports and statistics on the re- insurance industry

10 To liaise with and advise federal ministries, extra ministerial departments, statutory bodies and other government agencies on all matters relating to insurance contained in annual technical agreements to which Nigeria is signatory

11 To contribute to the educational program of the chartered institute of Nigeria and the West African insurance institute

12 To carry out such other activities connected or incidental to its other functions under the decrees

12 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The insurance industry in Nigeria has acute shortage of high level manpower for most classes of insurance and re- insurance business The Nigeria insurance industry does not enjoy the required public goodwill and reason for this has to do with the damage done to practice of the profession by the get rich entrepreneur who goes about the business of insurance with the little regard to the principle of the profession As a result of this, the government has come up with so many policies aimed at the study though will save the insurance industry The extent to which all those government policies affect insurance companies and provides solution to ensure the survival of these insurance companies is another thing The research therefore, is indicated to examine the impact of various control measures as promulgated by government to regulate the activities of the insurance industry

13 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this research is essential in a direct investigation on the impact of government policies on the insurance industry in Nigeria

* To look into the factors hindering the performance of insurance companies through the various government regulatory policies

* To determine the impact of those government policies on the insurance companies and the insuring public

* Since the insurance industry is the second largest deposit mobilization institution in the country, it therefore encourages saving which plays an important role in the social and economic well being of the country

* To evaluate the performance of the industry therefore, is necessary for the growth of the economy

14 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

i To enlighten the Nigerian populace about the benefit that they could drive by taken up insurance cover

ii To guide the policy makers when they are enacting laws concerning insurance

iii Ascertain the need or otherwise for government intervention through regulatory body in the insurance industry

15 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

i To determine the impact of government policies in regulating the activities of the Nigerian insurance industry

ii The study therefore will concentrate on the Nigeria insurance industry

16 DEFINITION OF THE TERM

i INSURER / ASSURER: This is the insurance or assurance company that issue out policy to the policy holder

ii INSURED / ASSURED: This are policy holders in the insurance business

iii PERIL: This is known as a prime cause or what gives rise to the loss

iv PREMIUM: This is periodic consideration payment by the policy holder to the insurance company which will necessitate compensation by the insurer to the insured

v POLICY: This is a written contract of insurance which is issued to the policy holder

vi RE- INSURANCE: This is an insurance company re-insuring again a risk that had already been insured to another insurance company

vii CEDING COMPANY: This is the direct insurer or the original insurer who is re-insuring the risk to another insurer

viii UNDERWRITING: This is a process by which an insurance company determine weather or not on the basis it will accept an application for insurance

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