THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF Crateva adansonii DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION

By

LUKPATA CHRISTOPHER .O.

Presented To

Department of Biochemistry

ABSTRACT

Crateva adansonii is a medicinal herb commonly used in parts of Africa because
of the side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID), like heart
diseases and kidney failure. Inflammation is a major public heart issue in the world
but treatment is becoming complex because of the side effects of antiinflammatory
pharmaceutical drugs. Hence the need for alternative drug is highly required. This research work investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii stem bark, using rodent model. Adult Swiss albino rats (110-200g) of either sex were randomlydivided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received different doses of the extract (300mg, 500mg, 700mg, and 900mg) in 3% v/v
tween 80 administered intraperitonally respectively. Control group-1 received volume of 3%v/v tween 80 and standards group received 100mg/kg Ibuprofen.
One hour later acute inflammation was induced by injection of 0.1ml of undiluted egg albumin into the sub planter of the right hand paw of rats. The volume of the paw was measured by mercury displacement before and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 & 3 hours after egg albumin injection, while the standard was measured at internals of one hour, for up to 4 hours. Edema formation was assessed in terms of the difference in the zero time per volume of the injected pair and its volume at the different time after egg albumin injection. For each dose of extract, percentage
inhibition of edema was calculated percentage inhibition. Result show that Crateva adansonii may have anti-inflammatory effects. This finding supports the use stem bark of Crateva adansonii in not only traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - -i
Approval page - - - - - -ii
Dedication - - - - - -iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - -iv
Abstract - - - - - -v
Table of Content - - - - - -vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction - - - - - -1
1.1 Crateva adansonii - - - - - -2
1.2 Research Aim & Objectives - - - - - -2

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Definition of Inflammation - - - - - -3
2.1.1 What is Anti-inflammation? - - - - - -3
Types of Inflammation (Acute and Chronic) - - - -4
2.1.2 Steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - - -5
2.1.3 Immune selective anti-inflammatory derivative - - -6
2.1.4 Pain - - - - - -7
2.1.5 Long effect of inflammation - - - - - -8
2.1.6 Ice Treatment of Inflammation - - - - - - 9
2.1.7 Nutritional sources of anti-inflammatory compounds - -9
2.2 Vascular event in inflammation- - - - - -9
2.2.1 Vasoconstriction - - - - - -10
2.2.2 Vasodilation - - - - - -11
2.2.3 Vascular permeability - - - - - -11
2.3 Cellular event - - - - - -14
2.3.1 Leukocytes migration as specific Hemoral/cellular immunity- - - - - -14
2.4 Mediators of inflammation - - - - - -17
2.4.1 Cell derived mediators of inflammation- - - - -18
2.4.2 Histamine - - - - - -19
2.4.3 Cytokines - - - - - -19
2.4.4 Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)- - - - - -19
2.4.5 Platelet-Activating factor (PAF)- - - - - -20
2.4.6 Arachidonic Acid (AA - - - - - -20
2.4.7 Free radicals as mediators of inflammation- - - - -22
2.4.8 Nitric Acid (NO) - - - - - -23
2.4.9 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)- - - - - -

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Materials, equipments and apparatus - - - - -25
3.2 Chemical, reagents and practical technique- - - -25
3.2.1 Methanol - - - - - -25
3.2.2 N-Hexane - - - - - -26
3.2.3 Ethyl acetate - - - - - -27
3.2.4 Dichloromethane - - - - - -28
3.3 Methodology - - - - - -29
3.3.1 Collection and preparation of plant- - - - - -29
3.3.2 Extraction and fractionation of plant materials- - - -29
3.4 Phytochemical Analysis - - - - - -30
3.5 Column chromatography - - - - - -32
3.6 Thin layer chromatography - - - - - -33
3.7 How to run TCL plate - - - - - -34

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Experimental result - - - - - -38
4.1 Tabular and graphical representation of effect of anti-inflammatory effect of
Crateva adansonii dichloromethane extract- - - - -38
4.2 Phytochemical analysis of extract (result) - - - - -40

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion - - - - - -41
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - -41
REFERENCE - - - - - -42
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX III
APPENDIX IV
APPENDIX V
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