PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII STEM BARK

By

YAHAYA MEMUNAT

Presented To

Department of Biochemistry

ABSTRACT 

This research investigated the phytochemical and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii stem bark. Although several edible and non-edible plants parts are used in inflammatory treatment, many record has been found of the use of Crateva adansonii stem bark. For this research, fresh stem bark of Crateva adansonii were collected from Asata village in Enugu State. The cuttings were authenticated at the Bioresource development centre. They were then dried at room temperature for one month in an open lab space, grounded into powder and weighed on a beam balance as 460.6g. The powder was soaked for twentyfour to fourty-eight hours in methanol to get a methanol extract and then concentrated into paste at a set temperature range of 30-550C in a water bath. A population of twenty adult wistar Albino rats was used for antiinflammatory test. The rats were divided into five (5) groups of four (4) albino rats each. They were administered 3% tween-80 mixed with dichloromethane extract of Crateva adansonii and the control was administered with 0.5ml of 3% tween-80. Acute inflammation was induced an hour after test substances were administered by injecting egg albumin in the subplanter region of the right hind paw and edema assessed by mercury displacement for a period of 0-180 minutes. Anti-inflammatory effect was significant within 30 minutes of induced edema with inhibition occurring in three phases of 0-30, 30-60, 60-90. 90-120 to 180 minutes. Inhibition was highest at the third phase. Crateva adansonii barks showed antiinflammatory effect by inhibiting âprostaglandinâ synthesis an inflammatory mediator
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ---------------------------------------------------------------------i
Certification Page-----------------------------------------------------------ii
Dedication--------------------------------------------------------------------iii
Acknowledgements---------------------------------------------------------iv
Abstract-----------------------------------------------------------------------v
Table of Contents-----------------------------------------------------------vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Crateva Adansonii as a Plant-------------------------------------5
1.3 Distribution-----------------------------------------------------------6
1.4 Scientific Classification---------------------------------------------6
1.5 Properties -------------------------------------------------------------7
1.6 Research Aim and Objectives-------------------------------------8
1.7 Background of Study------------------------------------------------8

CHAPTER TWO-
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation---------------------------------------10
2.1 Principle of Inflammation ---------------------------------------10
2.2 Types of Inflammation -------------------------------------------12
2.3 Categories of Inflammation Mediated by the Immune System ---------------------------------------------------------------13
2.4 Mediators of Inflammation---------------------------------------22
2.5 Histamine and Serotonin------------------------------------------29
2.6 The Coagulation Mechanism-------------------------------------30
2.7 Fibrinolysis-----------------------------------------------------------35
2.8 The Kinin â“ Forming System--------------------------------------36
2.9 Inflammation and Diseases ----------------------------------------40
2.10 Ways of Treating Inflammation-----------------------------------40
2.11 Immune Selective Anti-inflammatory ---------------------------42
2.12 The Use of Herbs in the Treatment of Inflammation---------43
2.13 Anti-Inflammatory Drugs------------------------------------------44
2.14 Phytochemicals-------------------------------------------------------46
2.15 Glycoside---------------------------------------------------------------47
2.16 Flavonoids--------------------------------------------------------------47
2.17 Tannins-----------------------------------------------------------------49
2.18 Saponins---------------------------------------------------------------49

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 MATERIALS --------------------------------------------------------51
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus Used --------------------------------------51
3.1.2 Animal Used----------------------------------------------------------54
3.2.1 Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------55
3.2.2 Extraction--------------------------------------------------------------56
3.2.3 Preparation of Reagents for Phytochemical -------------------56
3.2.3 Phytochemical Analysis of the Extract --------------------------57
3.2.5 Test for Alkaloide---------------------------------------------------57
3.2.6 Test for Saponin------------------------------------------------------58
3.2.7 Test for Terpenoids--------------------------------------------------58
3.2.8 Test for Anthraquinones -------------------------------------------58
3.2.9 Test for Coumarins---------------------------------------------------59
3.2.10 Test for Phlobatannins----------------------------------------------59
3.2.11 Test for Flavonoids--------------------------------------------------59
3.2.12 Test for Tannins------------------------------------------------------59
3.2.13 Test for Saponin------------------------------------------------------60
3.2.14 Test for Resins--------------------------------------------------------60
3.2.15 Test for Steroids and Terpenoids --------------------------------61
3.2.16 Test for Glycoside---------------------------------------------------61
3.2.17 Preparation of Reagents for Anti-Inflammatory Test--------62
3.2.18 Test for Anti â“ Inflammation Activity --------------------------62
3.2.19 Thin layer Chromatorgaphy (TLC)------------------------------65
3.2.20 How to Run A TLC Plate------------------------------------------66

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Extraction ------------------------------------------------------------73
4.1 Photochemical analysis of Crateva Adansonii Bark Extract-74

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion -----------------------------------------------------------------75
5.2 Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------------76
REFERENCES-------------------------------------------------------77
APPENDIX------------------------------------------------------------80

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