Presented To

Department of Civil Engineering


Common river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from natural sources. Also large-scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. As environmental transportation and other constraints make the availability and use of river sand less attractive, a substitute or replacement product for concrete industry needs to be found. River sand is most commonly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute shortage in many areas. Whose continued use has started posing serious problems with respect to its availability, cost and environmental impact. In such a situation the Quarry rock dust can be an economic alternative to the river sand. Quarry Rock Dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm. Usually, Quarry Rock Dust is used in large scale in the highways as a surface finishing material and also used for manufacturing of hollow blocks and lightweight concrete prefabricated Elements. Use of Quarry rock dust as a fine aggregate in concrete draws serious attention of researchers and investigators. This paper presents the feasibility of the usage of Quarry Rock Dust as hundred percent substitutes for Natural Sand in concrete. Tests were conducted on cubes to study the strength of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust and the results were compared with the Natural Sand Concrete. An attempt has also been made to durability studies on Quarry Rock Dust when compared with the Natural Sand concrete. It is found that the compressive, flexural strength and Durability Studies of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust are nearly 10% more than the conventional concrete.


Title page i

Approval page ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of content vi


Introduction 1

1.1 Background of the study 1

1.2 Scope of study 3

1.3 Statement of problem 3

1.4 Objective of the study 3

1.5 Significant of study 4


Literature review 5

2.1 Concrete definition and historical development 5

2.2 Concrete as a structural material 16

2.3 Characteristics of concrete 21

2.4 Types of concrete 24

2.5 Factors influence concrete properties 27

2.6 Cement content 28

2.7 Manufactured fine aggregates 29

2.8 Characteristics of manufacture fine aggregates 30

2.9 History of the origin of cement 31


Materials and methodology 37

3.1 Concrete 37

3.2 Cement 37

3.3 Fine aggregate 38

3.4 Quarry rock dust 39

3.5 Curing 40

3.6 Water 40

3.7 Water for curing and washing 41

3.8 Definition of workability 42

3.9 Measuring of workability 44

3.10 Slump test 45

3.11 Procedure for slump test 45

3.12 Comprehensive strength test 46

3.13 Specific gravity test 47

3.13.1 Specific gravity test 47

3.14 Procedure to determine water absorption aggregate 51

3.15 Concrete curing 52

3.15.1 Reason for curing concrete 52


Presentation of data analysis 59


Table 4.1 Quarry dust (actual value) 58

Table 4.2 Quarry dust (control values) 58

Table 4.3 Rivers sand (actual value) 60

Table 4.4 Rivers sand (control value) 60

Table 4.5 density of concrete quarry dust 63

Table 4.6 Quarry dust control 63

Table 4.7 Rives sand actual 64

Table 4.8 Rivers sand control 65

Table 4.9 Slump test result (River sand) actual value 65

Table 4.10 slump test value (Rivers sand) control value 66

Table 4.11 Slump value (Quarry dust) actual value 66

Table 4.12 slum test value (Quarry dust)control value 66

Table 4.13 Density and specific gravity of the fine aggregates 67

Table 4.14 Specific gravity ad water absorption of coarse aggregate 67

Table 4.15 Sieve analysis result (River sand) 68

Table 4.16. Sieve analysis result (Quarry Dust) 69


Recommendation and conclusion 70

5.1 Discussion 70

5.2 Conclusion 71

5.3 Recommendation 71

References 72

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