Presented To

Department of Architecture

The culture of people determines and shapes the domestic space in their domestic 
architecture. Subsequent modifications of the  idea have focused on more precise  revelations 
of how the spatial  arrangements of material culture are culturally patterned.  Through a 
topological analysis of house plans and patterns, collected from the City of Benin, this study 
detects a  transformation  in the house-type  aspired and developed by people  during the last 
five centuries.  A group of 1054 houses, located  in four residential zones  in Benin City, Nigeria, has been analysed by means of  frequency distribution,  Space Syntax categories  and factor analysis. 
The research is determined  to find out how the use, organization and meaning of space in 
Benin have changed and whether or not there are continuities over the years across the entire 
City.   The Space Syntax approach is used to measure the varying degree of change at each 
stage of the evolution. Here, the „space-activity‟ interaction is the main idea that enables us to 
see what underlies the process. As the old  spaces  take different names and functions in the 
new  design, they bring about the recombination of their activities, and when this occurs 
repeatedly at each stage, it leaves behind „topological paths‟ from which the direction of the 
evolution can be measured.  Further examinations reveal that the  space-activity interaction 
arises both at each partitioned  space and at the collective  space that is closely  related. The 
analysis of the attitudes and responses of the residents using factor analysis revealed that both 
socio-economic and socio-cultural factors are responsible for the change and continuity in the 
domestic space. 

Title Page ----------.------------------------------------------------------. 
Certification-------------------------------------------------------------- - ii 
Table of Content----------------------------------------vi  
List of Tables ---------------- - ------------------------------------------ - xi 
List of Figures --------------------.------------------------------------ - ..xiv 
List of Plates---------------- - ---------------------------------------- - .xviii 
11 Background to the Study---------------------------------------------- - 1 
12 Statement of the Problem ------------------------------------------------6 
13 Research Questions------------------------------------7 
14 Aim and Objectives of the Study--------------------------------------------7 
15 Scope of the Study ------------------------------------------------------8  
16 The Context of the Study ------------------------------------------------ - 9 
161 The History and People of Benin City--------------------------9 
162 Historical Background-------------------------------- - 12 
163 Benin and its Surrounding Villages--------------------------18 
164 Residential Zones in Benin City----------------------------20 

21 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------24 
22 Domestic Architecture and Culture----------------------------------------24 
23 Social and Cultural Change----------------------------------------------32 
24 Urbanization and Urban Change ------------------------------------------46 
25 Summary---------------------------------------- - 56 
31 Introduction----------------------------------------58 
32 Concept of Culture---------------------------------------------------- - 58 
33 House Form and Culture---------------------------------------------- - 60 
34 Traditional versus Modern Houses-------------------------------------- - 63 
35 Classification of House-types -------------------------------------- - 66  
36 Organization, Use and Meaning of Space---------------------------------- - 68 
37 Household------------------------------------------------------ - 72 
38 Summary---------------------------------------- - 75 

41 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------77 
42 The Research Design-------------------------------------------------- - 78   
43 Study Population--------------------------------------------------------79  
44 Sampling Method/Procedure--------------------------------------80 
45 Sample Size---------------------------------------------------------- 80 
46 Data Collection------------------------------------------------------ - 83 TABLE OF CONTENTS 
461 Design of Questionnaire ---------------------------------------------- - 84 
462 Design of Interview Schedule ----------------------------------85 
463 Data Collection and Presentation----------------------------------------86 
51 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------88 
52 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Residents---------------------------- - 89 
521 Household Income-------------------------------------------------- - 90 
522 Occupational Structure--------------------------------------------------92 
523 Age and Sex ------------------------------------------------------ - 93 
524 Marital Status and Household Size-------------------------------------- - 94 
525 Ethnic Composition-------------------------------------------------- - 95 
526 Educational Background of Respondents-------------------------------- - 96 
527 Tenure status of respondents------------------------------97 
53 Socio-Cultural Characteristics of Residents---------------------------------- - 98 
531 Religion------------------------------------------------------------ - 99 
532 Number of household ---------------------------------------------- - 99 
54 Summary----------------------------------------100 
61 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------102 
62 Classification of the Houses and their Characteristics------------------------ - 103 
63 Classification of the Houses --------------------------------------------103 
631 Core Residential Zone------------------------------------------------107 vii 
632 Intermediate Residential Zone---------------------------------------- - 120 
633 Sub-urban Residential Zone------------------------------------------ - 133 
634 Planned Estate Residential Zone----------------------------------------141 
64 Characteristics of the Houses------------------------------------------ - 150 
641 Tenure Composition------------------------------------------------ - 150 
642 Number of Household in the House--------------------------------------152 
643 Length of Years of Stay in the House---------------------------------- - 153 
644 Age of the House----------------------------------------------------154 
645 Owner----------------------------------------156  
65 Synthesis------------------------------------------------------158 

71 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------160 
72 Approaches to the Study of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic Space---- - 161 
73 The Architectural Approach-------------------------------------------- - 161 
731 Organization and Use of Domestic Space----------------------------------162 
732 Meaning of Domestic Space------------------------------------------ - 162 
733 Socio-Spatial Analysis of Domestic Spaces in Benin---------------------- - 164 
734 Socio-Spatial Analysis of the House-types across the Residential Zones----------165 
735 Houses types--------------------------------------------------------166 
74 Analysis and Interpretation of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic   
Space in Benin------------------------------------------------------166 
741 Cooking and Eating Spaces------------------------------------------ - 167 
742 Storage Space for Household Goods------------------------------------180 viii 
743 Sleeping Arrangement---------------------------------------------- - 188 
744 Space for Personal Hygiene------------------------------------------ - 196 
745 Outdoor Spaces (Communal, Private and Public), Receiving Guest ---------- - 209 
746 Space for Worship and Socializing, Ceremonies and Festival----------------222 
747 Summary and Interpretation------------------------------------------ - 236 
75 Data on Attitudes and Response of Respondents ----------------------------237 
751 Summary---------------------------------------------------------- - 244  
76 Synthesis----------------------------------------245 
81 Introduction-------------------------------------------------------- - 246 
82 Summaries of Findings ---------------------------------------------- - 247 
83 Synthesis ---------------------------------------------------------- - 249 
84 Syntheses of Continuity and Change--------------------------251 
85 Implications of Findings ---------------------------------------------- - 251 
86 Emerging Issues--------------------------------------------------252 
861 Public and Private Spaces-------------------------------------------- - 252 
862 Privacy------------------------------------------------------------ - 253 
863 Training for Local Builders-------------------------------------------- - 253 
864 Security---------------------------------------------------------- - 253 
865 Building for Culture and Climate----------------------------------------254 
87 Conclusions-------------------------------------------------------- - 254 
BIBLIOGRAPHY---------------------------------------------------- - 256  
APPENDIX---------------------------------------------------------- - 277  ix 


List of Plates 
Plate 11:   Engraving Showing Warriors with Spears and Shields, Drummers  
                  and Dancers, during a Ceremony in the Oba Palace-------------------- - 13                         
Plate 12: Pre-Colonial Drawing of Benin City, Before The British Occupation-------- - 15                         
Plate 61: Private Courtyard (Harem for Women and Children) - Ikun N’oderie-------- - 108 
Plate 62: Private Courtyard- (Harem for Women and Children) - Ikun N’oderie--------109 
Plate 63: Public Courtyard (Entrance Courtyard) - (Ikun N’odore)--------------------109 
Plate 64: Outer Courtyard for Shrines and 1dols - (Ikun N’arhuera)------------------111 
Plate 65: Shows That Externally the Mud Walls are Finished in a  
               Pattern of Horizontal Ribs------------------------------------------112 
               Double Floor House----------------------------------------------192 

List of Figures 
Fig 11: Map of the Kingdom of Benin In the nineteenth century--------------------10                          
Fig 12: Present Day Nigeria, Showing the Position of Benin City--------------------11 
Fig 13: Reconstructed Kingdom Benin Flag, now in the British National Maritime Museum-------------------------------------------- - 12                         
Fig14: Map of Benin and Its Surrounding  Villages------------------------------ - 19 
Fig 15: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City---------------------------- - 20 
Fig 16: Plan of Benin-City Showing the Core Area and Intermediate Area------------22 
Fig 21: Culture Changes in Tandem with Built Environment------------------------37                         
Fig 22: Tracing the Change Over Time---------------------------------------- - 38 
Fig 31: Hierarchy of Spaces, Showing Private, Semi-Private and Communal Spaces ----69 
Fig 32: Summary of Conceptual Framework on Built Form and Culture--------------74   
Fig 41: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City---------------------------- - 81 
Fig 61a Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House--------------------------113  
65 Pages 11,368 Words 216 Views Microsoft Word Format No. of Chapters: 1 to 5 Chapters
Reference/Bibliography: YES 5,000 NGN2,500 NGN PROJECT

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