SPATIAL INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA)

By

Obu J. I, Obienusi E. A, Ozoemene M. L, and Iwu E. O.

Presented To

Department of Geography and Meteorology

ABSTRACT
This work examined the spatial inequality of development in the twenty one Local Government Areas of Anambra State. To determine the extent of the inequality in stateâs development service, Gini co-efficient procedures, factor analysis and cluster analysis procedures were employed. The data used were collected on 17 variables indexing various aspects of development for the 21 Local Government Areas. From the Gini co-efficient analysis, using the 17 original development indicator variables, the result shows that there are inequality in health, M.D.G water, and transportation variables. With the composite standard deviate, several patterns of inequality were revealed. Development is found to be continuous in scale among the areas, and the areas can be categorized into different groups; but on the basis of the technique of analysis adopted, a structure of privileged and under privileged areas were revealed. Eleven out of the 21 Local Government Areas were privileged while 10 areas were deprived. Six variables with eigen-value greater than unity were extracted from the factor analysis.  Six variables explained about 78.16 percent of the variation in the original variables. It shows that 4 Local Government Areas have a comprehensive development while many other areas are deprived in terms of development. Conceptually, development is seen in terms of social and economic opportunities available to a community for its welfare and progress. The principles of equity and social justice therefore form the bases of determining the relative privilege or under-privilege of a unit area in the overall development of the study area. From the cluster analysis result, it shows that while the privilege group exhibits random pattern, the underprivilege group has some tendency towards clustering.
KEYWORDS: Spatial Inequality, Development, Community, Social Justice, Nigeria
INTRODUCTION  
Background to the Study:
Spatial inequality is typically thought of as a construct arising out of variations in economic endowments, geography and socio-political structure (Adefila, 2012). The imbalance in terms of spatial distribution of essential goods and services is widely recognized in Nigeria. The phenomenon of inequality is epitomized in the use of terms as âdevelopedâ âunderdevelopedâ, âadvantagedâ and disadvantaged to described places  that are comparatively better or lagging behind in certain socio-economic benefits.
Statement of Problem
Admittedly, spatial inequality exists almost everywhere irrespective of level of development or ideological disposition. It is present in the developed countries where it has long been a focus of public policies (Smith, 1979). However, inequality is very common in the developing countries (Renkow, 2006). In these countries, there are diverse forms of inequality, but the
imbalance in development among different spatial units in the same country is more striking and serious. Although the developing countries were late to recognize the defects of regional imbalance, most of them are now implementing several policies directed at achieving balanced development in their space economies. 
In Nigeria, for example, official concern about inequality abounds in the pages of policy papers. For instance, it is declared in the Third National Development Plan (1975-1980) that: A situation where some parts of a country are experiencing rapid economic growth while other parts are lagging behind can no longer be tolerated. (Nigeria, 1975)
Since 1970s, part of the broad national objectives contained in the National Development Plans are âto establish the country firmly as a just and egalitarian societyâ and to make the country âa land of bright and full of opportunities for all citizensâ (Nigeria, 1970). Moreover, an integral aspect of the short term objectives designed to ensure the realization of the broad objectives mentioned above is âto achieve more even distribution of income and balanced developmentâ. In addition, social and distributive equity is one of the three fundamental objectives under the general policy measures toward which the development policy is directed. 
Apart from the government policy actions, it could be observed that Anambra State citizens too have some awareness of spatial inequalities. They are reacting to the phenomena in several ways. Incessant demand for creation of more Local Government Areas and more autonomous communities, are some of the reactions of the people.
 Among other things, the consequence of all these social problems is political instability. Without political stability, economic progress is difficult to achieve. This is because an appropriate climate is not created for local and foreign investors.
     
Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to examine the pattern of inequality in levels of socio - economic development among different local government areas of Anambra state. The specific Objectives of the study are as follows
1.     To identify the spatial patterns of inequalities in level of socio â“economic development in Anambra state.
 2. To investigate the spatial pattern of inequality in the state by identifying objectively, the specific privileged areas and the specific deprived areas.
Research Hypotheses
The major hypotheses set out to be tested in the study are as follows:
1. There is no significant difference in the distribution of the facilities for socioeconomic development over space in  Anambra State.
2. There is no significant privileged or deprived area in the study areas.
Area of Study 
The study area is Anambra State. Anambra State is a state in south- eastern Nigeria. Anambra is the eight most populated state in the Federal Republic of  Nigeria and the second most density populated state in Nigeria after Lagos state (N.P.C, 2006). The stretch of more than 45km between Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500 â“ 2,000 persons per square kilometer (UN- Habitat.2009).
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