THE QUALITY OF INTRA URBAN PASSENGER BUS SERVICES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

By

Author

Presented To

Department of Transportation

ABSTRACT
Regardless of the vital role that intra urban transportation play in any urban area, their services 
are frequently insufficient to meet passengers demand and services for their daily commuting. 
This study assesses the quality of intra urban passenger bus services in Zaria urban area, Nigeria, 
taking into recognition the perception of passengers. The specific objectives were to map the 
area coverage and route of intra urban passenger bus services, estimate the average walking 
distance, waiting time, passenger‟s access to areas of bus pick up and alight points, determine the 
passenger bus service quality attributes that influence passenger satisfaction and transportation 
problems encountered by passengers and investigate the passengers‟ perception on the quality of 
bus services in the study area. A purposive sampling technique was used in the administration of 
questionnaire to 384 passengers. A five-point Likert scale with “strongly agree” equal 5, “agree” 
equal 4, “undecided” equal 3, “disagree” equal 2, and “strongly disagree” equal 1 was used in the 
rating. Maps, descriptive statistics, tables, graphs and percentage analysis were used to 
summarize the data collected. This study revealed that majority of the passengers (74.5%) walk 
within the range of 1-400 metres to access a bus, and a total of 73.5% of the passengers waited 
between 1 - 20 minutes before the arrival of a bus, while 44.5% of the passengers walk to their 
nearest bus pick up and alight point. Furthermore, the study revealed that passengers showed
satisfaction with transport price with a mean of (3.4), and were undecided on the sufficiency of 
buses and frequency of bus services with a mean of (3.0), resulting to the conclusion that 
passengers of public bus transport are not satisfied with the services provided in Zaria urban area 
of Kaduna state. The study therefore recommends “quality indicators” for public bus transport to 
be used to benchmark high quality
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of contents - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vii
List of tables - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xii
List of figures - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xiii
List of plate - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - xiv
 CHAPTER ONE: NTRODUCTION
11 Background of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
12 Statement of the Research Problem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4
13 Aim and Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6
14 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6
15 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
21 Conceptual Framework - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
211 Public Transportation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
212 Bus (Motorbus) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
213 Passenger - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
214 Types of bus routes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8
215 Bus Stop Location - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9
22 Service Quality Indices - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11
221 Service Quality and Measurement - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12
222 Level of Service Concept - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14
2221 Level of Service Definitions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15
223 Quality Loop - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17
2231 Quality Gaps - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18
224 Satisfaction and Service Quality Dimensions - - - - - - - - - - 19
23 Relevance of Public Bus Transport - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20
24 Sustainable Urban Transport - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22
241 Push and pull approach - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23
25 Benefits of Improved Bus Service - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24
251 System benefits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24
252 Community Benefits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24
 CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY
31 The Study Area - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
311 Physical Setting of the Study Area - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
3111 Geographical Location of the Study Area - - - - - - - - - - - 26
3112 Drainage - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
3113 Physical Form of Zaria urban area - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
3114 Climate - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27
3115 Population - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27
32 Methodology - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
321 Reconnaissance Survey - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
322 Types of data utilized - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
323 Sources of Data - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
3231 Primary sources - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
3232 Secondary sources - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30
33 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30
331 Sampling Size - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30
332 Sampling Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34
34 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF 
FINDINGS
41 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37
42 The Socio – Economic Characteristics of Respondents - - - - - - - 37
421 Gender distribution of the respondents - - - - - - - - - - - - 37
422 Age distribution of the respondents - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38
423 Occupation of the respondents - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
424 Respondents level of education - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 40
425 Monthly Income of Respondents - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41
43 Coverage Area and Route of Intra Urban Passenger Bus Services - - - - 42
431 Existing routes and stops in Zaria urban area - - - - - - - - - - 44
44 The Walking Distance, Waiting Time And Passenger’s Access to Bus Pick Up and 
Alight Point - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48
441 Passengers‟ walking distance to bus pick up and alight points - - - - - - 48
442 Passengers‟ waiting time at bus pick up and alight points - - - - - - - 50
443 Passengers access to bus pick up and alight points - - - - - - - - - 52
45 Commutter Bus Service Quality Attributes Measures that Influence Passenger 
Satisfaction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 54
451 Transportation problems encountered by passenger bus users in Zaria urban area - 56
46 Passenger’s Perception On The Quality Of Bus Services In Zaria Urban Area - 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
51 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63
52 Recommendations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 64
53 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 67
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68
APPENDIX 1: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 75

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