WATER QUALITY AND ALGAL DIVERSITY OF FISH PONDS AND DAM RESERVOIR IN GESEDADDO FARMS, YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

By

LIMAN

Presented To

Department of Plant Science

ABSTRACT

The water quality and algal diversity of the stocked and unstocked ponds and the dam reservoir at Gesedaddo farms, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, were assessed for ten months. Meteorological data were accessed from Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), magnesium, potassium, sodium, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, and some trace elements (iron, copper, and zinc) were determined using standard methods. The drop count method was employed in algal microscopy. Algal diversity and species richness were determined using Margarlef and Shannon-Wiener indices. A total of forty algal taxa belonging to four divisions were found. They are Cyanophyta (26.47%), Chlorophyta (44.53%), Bacillariophyta (24.80%) and Euglenophyta (4.20%). All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range Test DMRT and Correlation coefficient. Tests of significance were done at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 confidence levels. Water temperatures correlated positively with air temperatures, PO4, NO3, Fe, Na and Cu. Total hardness correlated negatively with pH, K, Mn and Zn. Air and water temperatures correlated positively with Navicula and Nitzschia spp. and negatively with Eudorina elegans and Trachelomonas spp. Seasonal variation of algal population revealed that Microcystis species a toxin producing blue-green alga was not recorded in wet season but were recorded in dry season. However, Micrasterias an indicator of clean water was recorded in the un-stocked fish pond. Phacus, Euglena, and Trachelomonas, indicators of organically polluted environment were recorded in dry season in the fish ponds but absent in dry season in the dam reservoir. The seasonal presence and absence of algal species in particular locations with the ambient physico-chemical parameters make them potential bioindicators for biomonitoring of the fish ponds. Anthropogenic activities in the catchment area affected the concentrations of chemicals in the dam reservoir and stocked fish pond. Chlorophycean indices were 0.96, 0.873 and 1.57 for the stocked fish pond, unstocked fish pond and the dam reservoir respectively, while the Myxophycean indices were 1.0, 0.839 and 1.80 for the three locations respectively. These values suggest that fish ponds were oligotrophic and the dam reservoir eutrophic. The study recommends qualitative and quantitative studies of water quality for early signals of pollution for timely intervention.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………… i
APPROVAL PAGE………………………………………………………………… ii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………… - iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………… iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………… vii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………… viii
LIST OF PLATES………………………………………………………………… ix
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………… xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………        1
11    Objectives of the study …………………………………………………… - … 2

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE…………………………………… 4

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS………………… - - - 12
31   Study Area …………………………………………………………………… 12
32    Meteorological Data………………………………………………………… - 13
33    Sampling  …………………………………………………………………… 13
331 Sampling for physico-chemical factors ……………………………………… 13
332 Sampling for Phycological (Algal) Studies …………………………………… 14
34 Physico-chemical Analysis …………………………………………………… 15
341 Transparency………………………………………………………………… 15
342 Temperature…………………………………………………………………… 16
343 Dissolved oxygen……………………………………………………………… 16
344 PH……………………………………………………………………………… 16
345 Conductivity………………………………………………………………… - 17
34 6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)………………………………………………… 17
347 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)………………………………………… 17
338 Phosphates…………………………………………………………………… 17
349 Nitrates……………………………………………………………………… 19
3410 Sulphates…………………………………………………………………… 19
3411 Sodium……………………………………………………………………… 20
3412 Potassium……………………………………………………………………… 21
3413 Calcium……………………………………………………………………… - 21
3414 Magnesium…………………………………………………………………… 22
3415 Trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe)……………………………………… - 22
3416 Total hardness………………………………………………………………… 22
351   Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of phytoplankton…………………… 22
352 Determination of trophic status……………………………………………… 23
353 Diversity Indices Margalef’s (d) and Shannon Wiener………………………… 23
36    Data Analysis………………………………………………………………… 24

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS…………………………………………………… 25
41   Meteorological Results………………………………………………………… 25
411 Solar Radiation, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed, Rainfall and Air Temperature 26 
42   Stocked Fish Pond (Location 1) …………………………………………………… 27
421 Physico-chemical Parameters…………………………………………………… 27
422 Phycological result for stocked fish pond (Location 1) ……………… - ……… 30
4 221 Algal biodiversity  ………………………………………………………… 30
4 222 Monthly variations in algal biodiversity……………………………………… 30
423 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for the stocked fish pond 34
43  Unstocked Fish Pond ………………………………………………………… 37
431 Physico-chemical Parameters………………………………………………… 37
432 Phycological results for the unstocked fish pond ………………………… - … 38
4 321 Algal biodiversity of unstocked fish pond ………………………………… 39
4322 Monthly variations in algal densities in the unstocked fish pond …………… 41
433 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for Location ……… 43
44    Dam Reservior (Location 3) ………………………………………………… 47
441 Physico-chemical Parameters…………………………………………… - … 47
442 Phycological results for Location 3…………………………………………… 50
4 421 Algal biodiversity of Location 3 …………………………………………… 50
4423 Correlation analyses amongst the investigated parameters for Location 3… - 54
45      Checklists of algae found in Gesedaddo farms…………… ……………… - 57
46 Percentage Composition of Algae found in Gesedaddo farms……………… 64
47 Percentage population of Algae by Location………………………………… 65
48   Results of Cyanphycean and Chlorophycean indices………………………… -   65
49 Shanon- Wiener and Margalef diversity indices………………………………… 65
410 Comparison of physic – chemical parameters and algal population in the various 
        locations………………………………………………………………………… 68 
4101 Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for physico-chemical parameters…… 68
4102 DMRT for algal species across the locations …………………………… - … 68
4103 DMRT for algal species across the dry and wet seasons………………… - … 71

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION ………………………………………………… 73
51      Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 79
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………… - 81
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 88

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