Presented To

Department of Geography


This study looked at the effects of solid waste dumpsites on groundwater quality of SamaruZaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from twenty four (24) different wells from three (3) strategic areas that have major dumpsites in Samaru. Twelve of these samples were taken during the dry season (April) and another twelve taken during the rainy season (August) from both bore holes and hand dug wells. Of the twelve samples, six were taken within (0-50 meters) to dumpsites and another six far away (50-150 meters) from the dumpsite. In carrying out the research, physico-chemical properties of well water was tested in the laboratory, while heavy metal properties was tested for soils in the dumpsite and well water. The pollutants assessed include, Biological Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solid, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Chloride, Total Hardness, Colour, pH, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Chromium and Lead. Test-test was used to test for significant difference between parameters while Chi-square was used to test for the relationship between quality of water in wells close to and those far away from solid waste dumpsite in dry and rainy season and relationship between heavy metal concentration in the soils of dumpsites and shallow and deep well water. From the findings of the research it was discovered that many wells in the study area located close to the dumpsite (0-50 meters) have levels of concentration of pollutants of both physico- chemical and heavy metal to be high (in wells close to dumpsites) compared to wells far from dumpsites < 50m. It was also discovered that the concentration of pollutants during the wet season is higher than that during the dry season. From laboratory analysis conducted it was discovered that COD had the highest physico-chemical concentration of 648.50Mg/L and BOD a concentration of 0.20Mg/L. The heavy metal with the highest concentration is Magnesium with a concentration of 960Mg/L and the least heavy metal concentration recorded was Chromium with a value of 0.0006Mg/L. In general, it was discovered that shallow wells had a higher percentage of contamination for both close to and far away from dumpsites than the deep wells in the study area. It was also discovered that deep and shallow wells close to dumpsites have a higher total contamination rate than deep and shallow wells far from dumpsites but there was no significant difference between them as revealed by the t-test. The results obtained from the chi-square revealed that there is a significant difference between the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) standard for potable water and the obtained values with an implicative result that the water from Samaru shallow and deep wells is not safe for direct consumption. Thus, such water should be treated by employing some measures such as the use of disinfectants or boiling before use which will help reduce the pollutants, but majorly an improved water supply to the study area will go along way to correct the unhealthy conditions. 

Cover page ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
Title Page --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
Declaration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii
Certification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ iii
Dedication -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
Acknowledgements --------------------------------------------------------------------- v
Abstract ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi
Table of Content ------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii
List of Tables ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- xi
List of Figures ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- xv
References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 88
Appendix ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
Table of Content ------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii
INTRODUCTION ---------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 Background to the Study ---------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem -------------------------------------------- 6
1.3 Aim and Objectives ----------------------------------------------------------- 9
1.4 Research Hypothesis ---------------------------------------------------------- 10
1.5 Scope of Study ------------------------------------------------------------------ 10
1.6 Significance of the Study ----------------------------------------------------- 11
2.1 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
2.2 Conceptual Framework ------------------------------------------------------ 12
2.3 Concept of Waste -------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2.3.1 Types of Waste ------------------------------------------------------------------ 14 Liquid Waste -------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 Gaseous waste -------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
viii Solid waste ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15
2.3.2 Types of Solid waste ------------------------------------------------------------- 15 Municipal waste ------------------------------------------------------------------ 16 Hazardous waste ------------------------------------------------------------------ 16 Hospital Waste -------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 Agricultural Waste ---------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.3.3 Refuse waste generation and disposal ------------------------------------------ 17 Dumping site ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Leachate effects -------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2.3.4 Water -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 General Definition of water pollution ------------------------------------------- 21 Sources of water pollution -------------------------------------------------------- 21 Effects of physico-chemcial and heavy metals --------------------------------- 22
2.4 Review of Related Literature --------------------------------------------------- 24
2.4.1 Gap in the study ------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY ------------------------------------ 30
3.1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30
3.2 Study Area -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30
3.2.1 Location ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30
3.2.2 Evolution and Morphology of Samaru ------------------------------------------- 32
3.2.3 Climate ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
3.2.4 Geology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34
3.2.5 Vegetation --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
3.2.6 Soil ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
3.2.7 Drainage ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36
3.2.8 Socio-Economic Setting of Samaru ---------------------------------------------- 36
3.2.9 Population ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
3.3 Methodology ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37
3.3.1 Reconnaissance Survey ------------------------------------------------------------ 37
3.3.2 Types and Sources of Data Required -------------------------------------------- 38
3.3.3 Sampling Technique ---------------------------------------------------------------- 38
3.3.4 Laboratory Analysis of Samples -------------------------------------------------- 38
3.3.5 Procedure Used for Chemical Analysis ------------------------------------------ 41 pH Determination ------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 BOD and DO determination ------------------------------------------------------- 42 COD Determination ---------------------------------------------------------------- 44 T.D.S. Determination -------------------------------------------------------------- 44 Chloride Determination ------------------------------------------------------------ 44
3.3.6 Methods Used for Physical Analysis ---------------------------------------------46 Colour Determination -------------------------------------------------------------- 46 Total Hardness and Magnesium determination --------------------------------- 47
3.3.7 Methodology Used for Heavy Metal Determination -------------------------- 48
3.3.8 Data Analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ----------------------------------------------- 51
4.1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 51
4.2 Distance of wells from dumpsite ------------------------------------------------ 51
4.3 Physico-chemical properties of well water in the study area ---------------- 52
4.4 Test for Significant difference in physico-chemical properties
 of well water in the study area-------------------------------------------------- 59
4.5 Heavy metal concentration in dumpsite of soil ----------------------------- 61
4.6 Heavy metal concentration in well water samples -------------------------- 63
4.7 Test for significant difference in heavy metal concentration
 of well water in the study area-------------------------------------------------- 70
4.8 Comparing water quality in Wells with WHO Standards------------------- 72
5.1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 84
5.2 Summary of Findings ------------------------------------------------------------- 84
5.3 Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
5.4 Recommendations ----------------------------------------------------------------- 87


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