The word “vote” means to choose from a list, to elect or to determine. The main goal of voting (in a scenario involving the citizens of a given country) is to come up with leaders of the people’s choice.
Most countries, Nigeria not an exception have problems when it comes to voting. Some of the problems involved include forging or hoarding of electoral papers, massive transfer of ballot papers, inflation of election figures and also destruction of ballot boxes.
This web-based voting system seeks to address the above issues and introduce an organized procedure of voting which is the bane of socio-economic and political progress in Lagos state.
It should be noted that with this system in place, the users, citizens in this case shall be given ample time during the voting period. They shall also be trained on how to vote online before the election time.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page I
Table of Content VI-VII
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - 2
1.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - 3
1.4 Objectives of the study - - - - - 3
1.5 Research questions - - - - - 4
1.6 Scope of the study - - - - - 4
1.7 Limitation of the study - - - - - 4
1.8 Assumptions - - - - - 5
1.9 Definition of terms - - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Introduction - - - - - 7
2.2 Evaluation of voting equipment - - - - 10
2.3 The security issues of web-based voting - - - 12
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 13
3.1 What is system analysis? - - - - - 13
3.2 Method of data collection used - - - - 13
3.3 System design - - - - - - 14
3.3.1 Designing alternative system - - - 14
3.3.2 Selecting the best system - - - - 14
3.4 General description of the existing system - - 15
3.4.1 Types of voting system - - - - 16
3.5 Problem of the existing system - - - - 17
3.6 Objectives of the existing system - - - - 18
3.7 Organisational structure - - - - 19
3.8 Input analysis - - - - - 19
3.9 Process analysis - - - - - 20
3.10 Output analysis - - - - - 21
3.11 Information flow diagram - - - - - 21
3.12 Justification for the next system - - - - 22
CHAPTER FOUR: SYTEM SPECIFICATION AND 23 DESIGN
4.1 System Specification and design - - - - 23
4.2 Output Specification - - - - - 23
4.3 Input Specification - - - - - 23
4.4 Database specification - - - - - 24
4.5 Program flowchart of the project - - - - 27
4.6 System flowchart - - - - - 28
CHAPTER FIVE: SYSTEM REQUIREMENT AND 32 IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 System requirement and implementation - - - 32
5.2 Software requirement - - - - - 32
5.2.1 System software - - - - - 32
5.2.2 Application software - - - - 33
5.3 Hardware requirement - - - - - 33
5.4 Language justification - - - - - 34
5.5 System conversion - - - - - 34
5.6 Testing - - - - - 34
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 36
6.1 Conclusion - - - - - 36
6.2 Recommendation - - - - - 37
REFREENCES - - - - - - - - 38
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Voting is a means of selecting or choosing leaders. It does not apply only to local governments, states and federal government of Nigeria but also in different institutions and social organizations. Therefore, the conduct of elections in a democratic society is very important not only because through it a change of government is effected but also because voting is the main form of political participation for most people for democracy to be sound and smooth, it should be enhanced on election free from fraud.
A voting registration system is like any other registration system, it takes information or data about different groups of people, information that can uniquely identify each person, and other relevant information.
Many centuries ago, most societies were society’s that were primitive and had not evolved a system of voting to elect the leaders that will govern them and promote societal harmony and peace. This means that people have to devise a system whereby a leader or a set of leaders have elected from the ranks of the people. At that point the idea of voting and being voted for became important and necessary. But before an individual can cast his or her vote, there are certain conditions to be met, one of which is to be registered as a voter.
Since independence in 1960, the Nigeria political scene has witnessed incessant upheavals, wide scale dishonesty and societal bitterness, which in most instances, degenerated into lawlessness and destruction of lives and property. Theses unfortunate situations paved the way for and served as spring boards for the emergence and growth of unskilled democrats and military leaders in the governance of the nation. Many Nigerian’s are disappointed that a post independent 56years-old Nigeria is still operating constitution which does not enjoy an overwhelming national acceptance, as evident in the persistent calls for the convocation of a sovereign’s national conference on the one hand, and the growing demand for ethnic nationalities on the other.
For about five and half decades since independence, the nation had shifted position between parliamentary and presidential system of government, with several military in cursions into polities over the years. Even the present presidential democratic dispensation is still undergoing experimentation with varying degrees of trial and error approach. It is in the light of the foregoing, that this project on voter registration is written to serve as a useful tool of enlightenment in the hands of voters, the electorate and the general public.
However, voter registration is a critical aspect of the electoral process. A credible voter register is a prelude to free and fair elections. It is also important for people to know who is qualified to vote, where, when and how to vote. Also, a full knowledge of the registration procedure will encourage eligible voters to participate in the electoral process.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The inefficiency of voting process in Lagos has resulted in a lot of problems. These problems have continued to obstruct the peace of democracy in Lagos because the choice of a capable candidate is not encouraged by the current system. The problems could be emendated as follows.
Ø The high incidence of multiple voting massive transferred of ballot papers and forging of electoral papers using fictitious names. Indiscrete manipulation and inflation of election figures by electoral commission officers to suit the interest of their favored candidates.
Ø Thuggery operation, fear of intimidation and victimization and smuggling of ballot papers into the ballot boxes.
Ø The fragile nature of some ballot boxes make them vulnerable to destruction
Ø Loss of votes due to either wrong voting or the case of any of accident occurring during transporting of the statement of result forms and other electoral materials to the collation centers.
Ø The delay in the generation and announcement of the results which gives room for other manipulations.
Therefore, there should be change for data handling.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of design and implementation of a web based voters registration system is to:
1. Design a voter registration system which will help to improve the voters system
2. Implement a web voter’s registration system.
3. Improve the standard of voter’s registration
4. Avoid unnecessary delay in voter’s registration.
5. Update the voter’s registration roll without bribery and conspiracy.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main objective of this project work is to design a fully web voter registration system which should be able to:
1. Effectively carryout the task of voting automatically and timely.
2. Put to an end the indiscriminate alteration of election results by any officer of the electoral commission of Lagos. This will inculcate discipline in the commission and promote their independence.
3. Secure ballot papers and elections results from any accident what server and to quickly detect any defaced ballot paper or a ballot paper that is wrongly thumb printed.
4. Stop multiple or double voting, forgery in any shape or form and smuggling of ballot papers into ballot boxes. This will restore the integrity of votes cast in any election in Lagos state.
5. Generate accurate report and effect a stick knowledge of election results using an on-line computer processing system.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a) Who is registering online?
b) How can we make use of the building blocks of a responsive application in improving the voting experience for stakeholders?
c) What are the Challenges faced by INEC during the conduct of the 2015 elections?
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
It is focused on studying the existing system of voting in Nigeria and to make sure that the peoples vote is count, for fairness in the elective positions. This will also produce:
· Less effort and less labour intensive, as the primary cost and focus primary on creating, managing, and running a secure web voting portal.
· Increasing number of voters as individuals will find it easier and more convenient to vote, especially in western society were life is a lot more regimented and programmed.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited by the restricted nature of the number of polling centers it cover. It does not represent a general election to cover the whole federation of Nigeria at the same time due to time constraints. Also there was limited time to effectively combine the research work with class study.
It is assumed that the implementation of the new system will rapidly improve the economic and the socio-political lives of the people of Lagos state. There will be no room for rigging and election malpractice.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
VOTER: A voter is a person who has a right to participate in an election as an elector.
ELECTION: This is a set of activities whereby members of a community choose their leaders.
POLITICAL PARTY: Is a group of people who share common principles about the management of their affairs, with the aim of capturing political power in a given polity.
BALLOT: This refers to the system of voting in a country, balloting could be open secret.
DEMOCRACY: This is government of the people by the people and for the people. This form of government places emphasis on the majority of people.
POLLING: A system of voting.
JUDICIARY: The organ of government responsible for the interpretation of laws and punishment of offenders for the reach of law.
ELECTORAL COMMISSION: This refers to an independent responsibility to conduct all election from the level of government election to the presidential election in the country.
INEC: Independent National Electoral Commission.
NYSC: National Youth Service Corp.
IPI: International Peace Institute.
RERC: Report on the Registration and Election Review.
ELECTORAL OFFICIALS: Personals who carryout election exercises.
POLL CLERK: A person who assists the presiding officer and deputizes in an event of the letter’s absences.
PRESIDING OFFICER: He or she is the actual officer who conducts the election in the polling station where he is in charge.
SUPERVISORY PRESIDING OFFICER: He or she is in charge of election in a ward usually made up of about 10 polling stations.
COLLATION/RETURNING OFFICER: He or she collates data from the elections and declares the results were required.
ROLL ASSISTANT/ORDERLY: There may be one or more poll assistants or orderlies in a polling center. Their duty is to assist in election duties and ensure orderliness in the station.
NOTICE IF ELECTION: This is a notice issued not less than 90days before the date appointed for holding of an election which is published in each state of the federation and the federal capital territory.
PUBLICATION OF THE LIST OF CANDIDATES: This is the publication by the electoral commission of the final list of all candidates who stand nominated, to all candidates together with the names of the persons nominating them, including their respective addresses and occupations.