ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND

By

Onyeji C.

Presented To

Department of Microbiology

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogens isolated from
wound was studied. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the honey on the test microorganisms. The result revealed that the two honey samples have heavy antibacterial activities against the test organisms and zones of inhibition were obtained showing high antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity increased with increase in the concentrations and honey from Nsukka produced a high antibacterial activity (clearer zone) on staphylococcus aureus and
Escherichia coli at all concentration and moderately for streptococcus pyogens. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession on more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other
infections resulting from burns and wounds.
TABLE OF CONTENT 
Title Page                    i 
Certification Page                ii 
Dedication                    iii 
Acknowledgement                iv 
Table of Content                 v 
List of tables                  viii 
Abstract                    x 
CHAPTER ONE 
1.0 Introduction                  1 
1.1 Aims and objectives              3 
CHAPTER TWO 
2.0  Literature review                5 
2.1  Wound infection                8 
2.2 Definition of honey               9 
2.3  Local test for honey                    13 
2.4  Classification of honey                    14 
2.5  Preservation of honey              16 
2.6  Properties and active ingredient of honey      17 
2.7  Mode of action of some antibacterial substance                  
  present in honey                 20 
2.8  Clinical conditions for treatment with honey      22 
2.9  Honey as an antimicrobial agent          24 
2.10  Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey      27 
2.11  Adverse reaction of honey            28 
2.12 Research on honey              29 
CHAPTER THREE 
3.1  Source of Sample              32 
3.2  Sources of honey               32 
3.3  Identification of organisms            32 
3.4  Gram Staining                 33 
3.5  Indole test                  34 
3.6  Catalase test                34 
3.7  Coagulase test                35 
3.8  Antibacterial sensitivity test            35
  CHAPTER FOUR 
4.1  Result                  37 
CHAPTER FIVE 
5.1  Discussion                 40 
5.2  Conclusion                 42 
5.3  Recommendation              43 
REFERENCE                  44 
Appendix 1                    51 
Appendix 2                    54 


LIST OF TABLES 
Table 1 - Composition of honey            13 
Table 2 - Result of Biochemical tests          25 
Table 3 - Inhibition of honey from Enugu North (Nsukka)    26 
Table 4 - Inhibition of honey from Enugu South (Ugwuaji)    26


CHAPTER ONE 
1.0 Introduction 
Infections and other health related problems have been of great 
concern to human beings and chemotherapy is the main approach in 
the treatment of such conditions. Investigation into the microbial 
flora of wound began in the late 19th
  century and since then; 
improvements in techniques have facilitated the recovery, 
identification and enumeration of a wide variety of microbial species. 
Most wounds support relatively stable polymicrobial communities 
(Bowkler,  et.al;  2001) often without signs of clinical infection 
(Hansson,et al; 1993). 
However, potential pathogens may be present and the delicate 
balance between colonized wound and an infected wound depends on 
the interplay of complex host and microbial influences (Emmerson, 
1998). The development of wound infection has deleterious effect on
patients by causing increased pain, discomfort, inconveniences and 
can lead to life threatening conditions or even death. 
Major challenges encountered with antibiotics in clinical use are 
resistance to  antibiotics which leads eventually to failure of the 
treatment (Blair 2004). Infectious diseases are known to be treated 
with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind; even today, 
natural substances continue to play a major role in primary health 
care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries (Jonathan, 
et.al; 2007). Over the years, there have been reports of the production 
of more potent antibiotics e.g. third and fourth generation of 
cephalosporin by pharmaceutical companies which are  not readily 
available and expensive. Problems of various antibiotics include low 
efficacy, side effect which has lead investigations into natural and 
potent antibacterial seeming to be the right step to take. The invasion 
of pathogenic organism is on the rise as a result, effects are been 
made to develop antibacterial agent from natural sources for better 
therapeutic effect (Gills, 1992). The therapies have drawn the interest 
of both public and medicinal communities. Current research has been 
focused on herbal and aromatherapy product. However, a number of 
their product such as honey has shown therapeutic promise. 
The presence in honey of various inhibins as described by (Doid and 
Dzaio, 1937) has been reported by several investigators. Honey was 
used to treat infected wound as long as 2000 years ago before 
bacterial were discovered to be the cause of infection in c.50 AD, 
Dioscorides described honey as been “good for all rotten and hollow 
ulcers” (Gunther, 1959). More recently, honey has been reported to 
have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacterial including 
aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positive and Gram negative (Molan, 
1992). The current prevalence of the therapeutic use of ancient 
remedies, include honey committee on science and technology. 
1.1 Aims and objectives. 
1.  To determine antibacterial potential of honey. 
2.  To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of honey. 
3.  To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey on 
bacterial isolates from wounds of human beings. 
4.  To yield additional knowledge such as the possible dilution of 
honey sample and activity of the honey sample in bacterial 
infection. 

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