Interest rate was before 1st August, 1987, statutorily regulated by the Central Bank of Nigeria. But this out of the tune with the liberalization policy of the structural adjustment programmes of the Federal government.
This research is an attempt at performance appraisal of the leading operations of commercial banks in the face of the deregulation of interest rate which is in consonance with the Federal Government stand on the use of market forces of demand and supply in resources allocation and determination of price.
The major sources of data for this research are primary and secondary data. This research has five chapters, Tables and Graph. I will use research methodology. This is how my research work will look like.
1. chapter one is introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, scope, significance and limitation of the study, Hypothesis etc.
2. chapter two, Review of related literature, financial repression hypothesis, financial repression in Nigeria, interest rate manipulation before deregulation etc.
3. chapter three, will be research design and methodology, population of commercial banks, Determination sample size, bank customers size etc.
4. chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, rate of return of questionnaires etc.
5. chapter five will be conclusion
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE OF CONTENTS IX
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY 8
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 8
1.7 HYPOTHESIS 10
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 12
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 12
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 FINANCIAL REPRESSION HYPOTHESIS 16
2.2 FINANCIAL REPRESSION IN NIGERIA 26
2.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTEREST RATE AND SAVINGS 34
2.4 INTEREST RATE MANIPULATION BEFORE DEREGULATION 38
2.5 COMMERCIAL BANK AND FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION. 40
2.6 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD LENDING 40
2.7 EFFECTIVE LENDING 44
2.8 THE IMPACT OF INTEREST RATE SPECULATION ON UNION BANK OF NIG. PLC .45
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 POPULATION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS 53
3.2 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE 54
3.3 DETERMINATION OF CUSTOMERS SAMPLE SIZE 55
3.3.1 DETERMINATION OF BANK CUSTOMERS SIZE 60
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 68
4.1 RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRES 68
4.2 ANALYSIS OF LOAN AND ADVANCES OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU 69
4.3 TOTAL DEPOSIT LIABILITIES OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU 70
4.5 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE TO CUSTOMER 79
5.0 FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 94
5.2 RECOMMENDATION TO: 98
(i) CENTRAL BANK 99
(ii) COMMERCIAL BANK 99
(iii) CUSTOMERS 101
(I) COVERING LETTER TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE 106
LIST OF TABLES
1. RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRES
2. ANALYSIS OF LOAN AND ADVANCES OF UNION BANKING OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU
3. TOTAL DEPOSIT LIABILITIES OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU
4. SCHEDULE OF AFTER TAX PROFIT OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU
5. CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS HELD BY CUSTOMERS IN UNION OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU
6. HYPOTHESIS I TESTING TABLE
7. HYPOTHESIS II TESTING TABLE
1 TOTAL DEPOSIT LIABILITIES OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There had been administrative control on the nation's interest rates until July 31, 1987 when, in consonance with the spirit of the structural Adjustment programme (SAP) of the Federal Government the Central Bank of Nigeria issued a circular on interest rates bordering on the deregulation of this financial sector of the economy.
As a signal to the direction, the Central Bank wanted the interest rate to go, the minimum Re-discount Rate (MRR) was raised from 11 to 15% which now peaks at 18.5%.
The apex financial institution (CBN) declared that interest rates payable on deposits or chargeable on loans and advances were henceforth to be determined by the interplay of the market forces of demand and supply.
Nigerians being what they are agitative and speculative went to town some decrying the policy as the last straw that would break the back of our fragile economy, others extolled the policy as the best and boldest steps ever taken towards the revamping of the ailing economy. These divergent views of the financial experts both in the academic and in the Banking sector about the likely impact of the interest rate deregulation motivated me to appraise the impact of the deregulation on commercial banking operation.
Notable among those who bemoaned the deregulation of interest rate was Abiodum (1987). According to him, Deregulation a fragile economy like ours will have the overall effect of dampening it since the high interest rate will cause slow down investment as borrowing will be curtailed.
But this view was opposed by Iklude (1987) 2. he was of the view that "interest rate deregulation will not only bring relief to the financially repressed economy but will ensure a real return on deposit which has over the year been negative.
What these argument boiled down to was that interest rate deregulation would lead to efficient allocation of financial market resources because interest rate will now reflect relative scarcity and relative efficiency in different uses.
According to Abraham Nwankwo (1987) 3 "Bigger banks will price small ones out at the market by lending cheep to customers and paying them interest rate on their deposits".
It is in the light of the controversies that accompanied the interest rate deregulation that prompted the deregulation on commercial Bank lending operation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Interest Rate deregulation, like other stringent economy measured by the present administration has far reaching consequences on the nation's banking industry and on the borrowing public.
Commercial banks that had lent huge sums of money before the deregulation of interest rate were in stormy water making their customers repay their loans at the new rate. The borrowing public complained that their banks had without prior notice unleashed high interest rate on them. They were at daggers drawn as the measure created had blood between the banks and their customers.
The interest rate deregulation with its attendant high interest payable on loan and advances terribly limited the borrower's quest for loan/advances since it was impossible for most of them to get inflationary adjusted rate of return on their borrowed fund-this has remained elusive for many borrowers.
Inspite of the deregulation, customers complain that commercial Banks pay very little interest rate for example on savings and charge borrowers/customers more than twice what they pay them on their savings accounts. This they complained was unfair as the return became negative when adjusted with the rate of inflation.
The general public also complained that banks (especially commercial and merchant Banks) have been posting huge profit after tax inspite of the bitting effect of the economy. The bank's credit ceiling was partly responsible for the state of the affairs, invoking economic Aloxim that the constant liquidity mop up on the banking sector by the apex financial institution was also responsible saying, the more illiquid a bank is, the more profitable it becomes".
A performance appraisal of the impact of the deregulation is long over due at least to shade light on the above controversies surrounding the policy three years after its introduction, thereafter, the problems are hereunder stated in question as follows:
(i) Did commercial bank's loans and advances deteriorate during the deregulation of interest rate?
(ii) Did depositors react favourably by increasing the volume of their deposit after the deregulation?
(iii) How have commercial banks been surviving the directives of deregulating the interest rate in this sector of the economy?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study aims to determine and analyze the impact of interest rate deregulation in Nigeria specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:-
1. Whether the interest rate deregulation has affected the volume of commercial bank's lending over the years.
2. Are the effect statically different according to the size of the banks?
3. The study will also find whether the interest rate paid to deposits mobilized by the commercial banks.
4. The study will also find whether there were more loan losses (bad and doubtful debt) during the era of interest rate moderation than this period of deregulation .
5. The research is also aimed at finding whether commercial banks made more profit before or during the deregulation.
6. What else do commercial banks to attract more deposits to enhance commercial banks' lending operation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A study of this nature which is more of a p0erformance appraised of the commercial banks' lending operation during the deregulation is of great significance to group of persons, institutions and governments.
The study will be of great importance to the banking sector of our economy because from the empirical view of the impact of interest rate deregulation on commercial bank's - CBN will also find the study valuable because it will enable it feel the purse of the commercial banks' three years after the deregulation.
Commercial banks' customers will also find results of the research very useful since it will enable them have a generalized view of lending operation by commercial banks in a deregulation economy.
`commercial banks' management will from the research evolve aggressive survival strategies.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study was concerned with the impact of interest rate deregulation on commercial banks' lending operation.
For effective coverage the study focused on loan and advances, leaving operations like call. Money and inter-bank lending as well as other short term placements of funds.
This research examined the volume of deposit liabilities, loans and Advances, Bad and doubtful debts and Net profit over the period of the Union Banks of Nigeria Plc Enugu.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
I which to state that this study was carried out within the limits imposed by time and financial constraints and as a result, the study was limited to union bank of Nigeria Plc Enugu. Another constraints through human was the attitudes of most of the loan officers of the banks who completed the questionnaires, some times, the respondents never actually answered the questions. This state of affairs could be frustrating as some of the respondents were said to be too busy unnecessary administrative or bureaucratic bottle-neck and utmost secrecy that characterize the banking industry in Nigeria are serious problems that plaque research in this sector of the economy.
Another constraints were the attitudes of customer - respondents. Some of them never actually completed the questionnaire while some did so haphazardly, rending the questionnaires almost useless.
Another constraint was the time scheduled for the completion of the work and limited resources at the disposed at the researcher.
Finally, in the light of the above constraints, the generalization that was made about the impact of interest rate deregulation on commercial banks' lending operation was limited by the above problem truthfulness in response to the questionnaires as well as sampling procedures used by the researcher.
For effective and valid investigation, the following hypotheses have been postulated which will be tested using appropriate statistical instruments.
Ho: These is one significant difference between the volume of leading (loans and advances) by commercial banks in interest rate regulated economy and one of interest rate deregulation.
HA: There is a significant difference between the volume of lending (loans and advances) by commercial banks in interest rate deregulation.
Ho: Commercial banks recorded more loan losses (bad and doubtful debt) in interest rate deregulated period than one of interest rate regulation
HA: Commercial banks did not record more loan losses (bad and doubtful debt) in interest rate deregulated period than one of interest rate regulation.
Ho: These is no significant difference between the volume of commercial banks' total deposit liabilities in interest rate regulated period and one of interest rate deregulation.
HA: There is a significant difference between the volume of commercial banks' total deposit liabilities in interest rate regulated period and one of interest rate deregulation.
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to find out the impact of interest rate deregulation on commercial banks' lending operations in Nigeria ,the following research questions should be considered.
1. What impact does the interest rate deregulation crear in commercial banks' lending operation?
2. What problems does it create in commercial banks' lending operation?
3. How can these problems be solved to enhances the performance of the commercial banks' lending operations?
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The definition of term used will be made only on the conceptual frame work for general comprehension of each term rather than on the theoretically analysis.
Interest Rate: Is used broadly to express the relationship in percentage between the interest for a given period of time and the principal. Whereas interest when used in absolute term means a payment for the use of a borrowed fund for a period of time.
Deregulation : Disentangling of official or administrative control and allowing for the interplay of at market forces of demand and supply to determine the rate of exchange of values. Deregulation of interest rate in Nigeria called for the setting of a floor rate below which it is no longer economically viable for any bank to lend, hence the minimum Rediscount Rate of the central Bank of Nigeria.
Lending :- This is letting of sum of money usually by a Bank or
other financial institution to a borrower to be repaid with or
Deposit :- An account of funds consisting of cash and or
cheques, drafts coupons and other cash items that may be
converted into cash upon collection. The deposit is given to
the commercial banks for the purpose of establishing credit
Savings :- The amount of existing income that is not spent on
consumption. Savings as used in the research context is that
part of income that is not consumed but are left in the
commercial banks for some future use.
Bad debt :- An amount due on an open account that has been
proved to be uncollectible. Any uncollectible receivable is
formed bad debts
1. Abiodum Raufu: "Implication of deregulating
Business times: September
7, 1997. page 10"
2. Iklide S.I: "On the Deregulation of
interest Rate in Nigeria, Mytha and Realities"
Nigeria Financial Review
Vol. 3, No. 2, march, 1990