PREPARATION OF BIOCHAR WITH PALM OIL MILL SLUDGE BY USING MICROWAVE FOR COPPER REMOVAL

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Author

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Department of Environmental

ABSTRACT

This study aims to prepare the bio-char from residues of palm oil mill sludge (POMS) after anaerobic digestion system through microwave pyrolysis method to remove copper. The two main parameters i.e. temperature, and holding time for the bio-char production were investigated to produce the bio-char. Results obtained were interpreted by response surface methodology. Properties of palm oil mill sludge, biochar produced at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 minutes were determined in term of various functional groups. The optimum conditions for preparing bio-char from palm oil mill sludge were found to be 300 watts and 10 minutes, the maximum removal efficiency of the optimized POMS bio-char is 83%.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION ii
APPROVAL FOR SUBMISSION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
ABSTRACT vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF SYMBOLS / ABREVIATIONS xiii
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Palm oil production 1
1.2 Wastes generated from Palm oil production 2
1.3 Bio-char 2
1.4 Heavy Metal 3
1.5 Problem statement 3
1.6 Objectives 4
CHAPTER TWO
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Palm oil mill Effluent 5
2.1.1 Types of Oil Palm Waste 5
2.1.2 Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) 6
2.2 Bio-char 7
2.2.1 Sources of feedstock for bio-char production 7
2.2.2 Theory of Microwave Heating and Conventional
Heating 12
2.2.3 Bio-char Production 12
2.2.4 Characteristic of sludge based Bio-char 15
2.2.5 Utilization of bio-char 18
2.3 Heavy Metal 19
2.3.1 Copper 19
2.3.2 Heavy Metal Removal Methods 20
2.3.3 Copper removal by bio-char 21
CHAPTER THREE
3 METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 Materials 22
3.1.1 Palm oil mill sludge(POMS) 22
3.1.2 Heavy Metal 22
3.1.3 Gases 23
3.1.4 Material Preparation Process 23
3.2 Equipments 23
3.2.1 Microwave(pyrolyzer) 23
3.2.2 Orbital Shaker 24
3.2.3 Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) 25
3.3 Preparation of bio-char 27
3.4 Concentration curve 28
3.5 Characterization 29
3.5.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) 29
CHAPTER FOUR
4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 31
4.1 Adsorption capacity study 30
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4.3 Characterization of Bio-char 36
4.3.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR) 36
CHAPTER FIVE
5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 42
5.1 Conclusion 41
5.2 Recommendation for Future Study 42
REFERENCE 43

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE TITLE PAGE
2.1 Products and By-Product distribution in oil palm
mill 6
2.2 Physicochemical Analysis of raw POMS and EFB 7
2.3 Source of feedstock for bio-char production 9
2.4 Summary of biomass conversion, pyrolysis 13
2.5 Bio-char yield, proximate and ultimate properties
of wastewater sludge and sludge bio-char at
various temperature 16
2.6 Heavy Metals Present in The Raw Sludge and
Sludge Bio-char at various temperature 17
2.7 Total Nutrients in wastewater sludge 17
2.8 Comparison of method for heavy metal removal in
wastewater 20
3.1 Materials 22
3.2 Label of Microwave 24
3.3 Experimental Design 27
4.1 Result of Copper Removal 30

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE
1.1 Figure 1. 1 Annual Palm Oil Production of
Malaysia and Indonesia from Year 2004 to Year
2010(MPOB and Oil World, 2011) 1
2.1 Figure2.1 Bio-char and other products of thermal
conversion of biomass according to current
technologies and feedstock. 14
2.2 Figure 2.2 Number of journal articles concerned
application of bio-char in water treatment (Tan et
al., 2013) 18
3.1 Microwave for Bio-char Preparation 24
3.2 Structure and Mechanism inside Inductively
Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) 26

3.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
for measuring concentration of copper 26
3.4 Adsorbance versus Concentration 29
4.1 Graph of bio-char removal efficiency against
power at 4 minutes 31
4.2 Graph of bio-char removal efficiency against
power at 6 minutes 32
4.3 Graph of bio-char removal efficiency against
power at 8 minutes 33
4.4 Graph of bio-char removal efficiency against
power at 10 minutes 34
4.5 Graph of bio-char removal efficiency against
power at 12 minutes 35
4.6 FT-IR Spectrum for Blank Sample 36
FIGURE TITLE PAGE
4.7 FT-IR Spectrum of 4 minutes and 300 watts
Produced Bio-char 37
4.8 FT-IR Spectrum of 6 minutes and 300 watts
Produced Bio-char 37
4.9 FT-IR Spectrum of 8 minutes and 300 watts
Produced Bio-char 38
4.10 FT-IR Spectrum of 10 minutes and 300 watts
Produced Bio-char 38
4.11 FT-IR Spectrum of 12 minutes and 300 watts
Produced Bio-char 39

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