THE ONGOING EFFECT OF TERRORISM ON THE HOSPITALITY & TOURISM INDUSTRY

By

AMARA KOROMA

Presented To

Department of Art and Design

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper was to analyze the phenomenon of terrorist acts, and various strategies used to address the effect on tourism and the hospitality industry. The problem with terrorism in society is that terrorism strikes fear in everyone that is directly and indirectly involved with occurrences of terrorist acts. Terrorism is a prevalent issue in society and is evolving due to the increased number of terrorist groups and the amount of resources they are able to obtain. A prime example of the prevalence of terrorism is the suicide bombing that took place in Russia at Domodedovo Airport on January 24th, 2011. Even though there are several research articles, theses and textbooks that address the issue of terrorism there is limited research that analyzes its effect on tourism. Some hospitality literature has a brief focus on its effect on tourism but is very broad and vague. These are both from primary and secondary sources. The specific topics of interest that will be analyzed are whether the severity or frequency of terrorist acts has a larger impact on touristsâ decision to travel or not; and how companies or government entities install a plan of action to handle a crisis of this sort in the future. Another topic is how the media positively and negatively assists during this time of uncertainty. This study is also aimed to benefit the reader or researcher that comes across this paper by giving them knowledge on motivations behind terrorism.  
Table of Contents 

Acknowledgment    ii 
Chapter 1    7 
Introduction   7 
Problem Statement    8 
Rationale   8 
Definitions  9 
Limitations/Assumptions   10 
Summary    10 

Chapter 2    11 
Review of the Literature - 11 
Introduction    11 
Terrorism  12 
Effects on Tourism and Hospitality Industry    13 
Tourism after 11 September: Analysis  14 
Terrorism and International Tourism: New Evidence    16 
Impact of terrorism on tourism: Summary of an online debate   - 17 
Political and Government Reactions to Terrorism  18 
Terrorism & Other Conflicts    21 
Influence of Media   21 
Sustainability of Tourism in Developing Countries - 22 
Summary    25 

Chapter 3    26 
Methodology   26 
Sample  26 
Data   27 
Summary    28 

Chapter 4    30 
Results & Data Analysis   - 30 
Ireland    31 
Turkey    34
United Kingdom 39 
Comparison of Ireland, Turkey and United Kingdom    42 
Summary    44 

Chapter 5    45 
Discussion   45 

Chapter 6    50 
Conclusions and Recommendations   50 
References   53

LIST OF TABLES  Page 
Table 1: Ireland- Arrivals of non-resident tourists according to the World Tourism 
Organization - 32 
Table 2: Ireland- Overnight stays of non-residents according to the World Tourism 
Organization - 33 
Table 3: Turkey- Arrivals of non-resident tourists according to the World Tourism 
Organization - 37 
Table 4: Turkey- Overnight stays of non-resident tourists according to the World Tourism 
Organization 38 
Table 5: UK- Arrivals of non-resident tourists according to the World Tourism 
Organization - 40 
Table 6: UK- Overnight stays of non-resident tourists according to the World Tourism 
Organization - 41

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