PRINCIPLES OF PRINTING

By

CHINASA M. UDEFI

Presented To

Department of Printing Technology

INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Between 15th century from the invention of muturable types in the 15th century to the years 1800 the techniques of cover posing printing and book binding am ong the only existing processes of the period noticed a --- improvement revision of techniques and equipment were few and of modest conception what printing look like before 1683 started in African, Egypt to be precise with writing on heaves found on the back of the Rive Nile on these leaves called papers were written massages and attached to dogs and pigeons to derived destinations we said above then what printing was like is not known and thin back. In 16 83 Joseph Moxonâs monomental work was God fired and for the first time printing procedure was codified.

Early methods and their investors
We have ---- where we and erpert opinion suggestions that gutenburg modelled him --- press on proelum or wine press. As time elapsed so refinements were made to big and clumsy presses of 15th century, the TUMPAN AND FRISKET were added in about 1545 and the metal series was introduced in 1550, poribly by DANNER a printer in MUREMBURG at that time but the associated history is some what confused. 
A printing press of Dutch origin, the work of WILLEM JANSZOON. BLAEU, was available in 1620 and embodied several development although some authorities have accredited certain improvement to BLAEU which are not device for effecting the automatic return of the platen often impression. Subsequently attempts pressers wee frustrated by take of stability in the wooden france which tended to stretch under the slightest strain ----- step toward was in 1790 when on American, ADAM RAMAGE brict a press which incorporated both an iron platen and bed and also included a spring device for inducing the automatic ascent of the platen offer impression. 
In 1796 firming DIDOT cominoned a press with a large iron platen capable of printing a full form is stage by taking two elistinct impression. The DIDOT press was soon to be supplemented by the first all iron press.
Thus, on the eve of the 19th century printed impression. The techniques of the compositor in the year 1800 had advanced very little, if at all from moxons day. Printing can be traced as far back as AD 594 to the Chinese whom used block from which print were produced. However relief printing, as we know it was developed in Europe during the fifteenth century as a result of Gutenbery. Invention of movable type. 
The early presses were adaptation of the winepresses in use of that time.
Few improvement or charges were made to this system. Public desire for reading which placed increasing demands of the painter technological development of the nineteenth century, the so called industrial Revolution were vast and reflected on the demand for increase for production especially of book and newspapers. Also running of the paralled with changes machine designs were the invention to the paper making and the invention of mechanical typesetting machine, faster, bigger, efficient presses were need to cope with the out put of from mechanical typesetting machines.
The most remarkable development was the introduction of iron Stan hope presses within in the period of 18 30 18 40. The rotary presses were developed for newspaper work.
Today the baie principles remained the same but the machines themselves have been developed to sophictaktion high speed electronically controlled pressed now in use.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Certification
Acknowledgement 
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE
Elements of Printing 
Method of Identification
Difficulties in Letter Press Printing
The monotype
Linotype
Hot metal

CHAPTER TWO
Letter Press Machine
Camera Work

CHAPTER THREE
Computer operation
Components of a Computer System

CHAPTER FOUR
The Printing Ink
Fountain Solution
Printing Paper
Off set Machine Printing
Principle of Offset Litho
Conclusion 
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